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Deutsch Forstzeitg 41(7): 159-164

Underplanting of tolerant species in stands of less tolerant kinds is an important means of maintaining a healthy condition of the surface soil and humus and preventing excessive evaporation. Underplanting should be done when the soil begins to show signs of deterioration, and in any case before the principal height growth is completed. Beech hornbeam, and white fir are the best species to plant under oak or larch; spruce is not satisfactory. While beech may be used under pine on the better soils, it does not do well in soils deficient in lime or moisture. Spruce does well even on the poorer sites and exerts a beneficial effect on pine. White pine (Pinus strobus) is also recommended for planting under P. silvestris. At the time of under-planting, the over-story should be thinned: For beech or hornbeam under oak, the canopy should be reduced to about 60% of full density; for the same species under larch, 30-35%; for spruce under pine, 40-45%; for white pine under pine, 35-40%; and for beech under pine, 60-70%.

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