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Upper Permian insects of New South Wales. 3. 4. 5



Upper Permian insects of New South Wales. 3. 4. 5



Proc Linnean Soc N S Wales 60(3/4-5/6): 265-279, 374-384, 385-391



3. The order Copeognatha. There is a short account of our present knowledge of the Up. Permian insect fauna of the Newcastle district, N. S. Wales, which now amounts to about 500 specimens, the dominant groups being the Homoptera and Mecop-tera. There are no blattoid or orthopteroid typea, and the other orders present are Odonata, Perlaria, Copeognatha, Protocoleoptera, Coleoptera (fairly common), Paratrichoptera, Planipennia and Protodiptera, which last are possibly true Diptera. The paper deals with Copeognatha from Belmont and Warner's Bay. The fauna is placed in 4 families, with 8 gen. and 13 species. Dichentomidae: AUSTROPSOCIDIUM (p.267), type A. pincombei* (p.267), A. stigmaticum* (p.268); MEGAP-SOCIDIUM (p.268), type M. australe* (p.269); STENOP-SOCIDIUM (p.270), type S. elongatum* (p.270). Fam. ZYGOPSOCIDAE (p.271), erected for ZYGOPSOCUS (p. 271), type Z. permianus* (p.271). Fam. ZOROPSOCIDAE (p.272), erected for ZOROPSOCUS (p.273), type Z. deli-catulus (p.273). Lophioneuridae Till, (including Cypho-neuridae Carpenter from Lr. Permian of Kansas): Lophioneura angusta* (p.278); LOPHIOCYPHA (p274), type L. permiana* (p.275), with L. stanleyi* (p.276), and L. thysanella* (p.276). AUSTROCYPHA* (p.277), type A. abrupta* (p.278), with A. barretti* (p.278). The Lr. Permian family Permopsocidae haa not yet been recognized ; but it is possible that Megapsocidium may belong to thia family when the complete wing is found. The Zygopsocidae are a highly specialized group which have left no descendants. The Zoropsocidae are the ancestors of the Zoraptera. The Lophioneuridae, of which 2 complete specimens have now been discovered, are not Homoptera but true Copeognatha.[long dash]4. The order Odonata. The freshwater beds of Warner's Bay have yielded the first record of Permian dragonflies from Australia. The n. fam. POLYTAXINEURIDAE (p.375) (suborder Protanisoptera), is erected for the genera POLYTAXI-NEURA (p.375), type P. stanleyi* (p.376), represented by a nearly complete forewing and portion of a hindwing, Pholidoptilon Zalessky, and Permaeschna Martynov; the characters distinguishing it from the Ditaxineuridae are given. The affinities of Polytaxineura are discussed in a separate section and the composition of the extinct suborder Protanisoptera Carpenter is also given. A 2d genus of uncertain affinities, ANTITAXINEURA (p.382), is defined from a fragment of a wing, and the type, A. ano-mala* (p.383), is descr.[long dash]5. The order Perlaria. This paper contains the first record of a true Stonefly from Palaeozoic strata. A nearly complete forewing and the abdomen of a half-grown larva were found close together in the Up. Permian beds of Warner's Bay. These are true Perlaria belonging to the existing family Eus-theniidae, and so closely allied to the existing genus Stenoperla of Australia and New Zealand that the name STENOPERLIDIUM (p.386), is proposed for the fossil genus, which is defined and compared with other genera of the families Eustheniidae, Austroperlidae, and Lepto-perlidae. The type, S. permianum* (p.387), is descr., together with the abdomen of the larva, which had 5 pairs of lateral gills as in the living Stenoperla. The finding of this fossil is a definite proof that the fossils found at Warner's Bay lived in particularly pure fresh water.

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