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Determination and quantification of content validity


Determination and quantification of content validity



Nursing Research 35(6): 382-385



ISSN/ISBN: 0029-6562

PMID: 3640358

DOI: 10.1097/00006199-198611000-00017

The arbitrary assertion of two or three experts does not establish content validity. Application of a two-stage process that incorporates rigorous instrument development practices and quantifies the aspects of content validity is required. In the first stage of this process, the content domain or dimensions are identified and items are generated to reflect the scope of the content domain of a cognitive variable or each of the dimensions of an affective variable. Once generated, the items are assembled in a usable, testable format. The instrument and domain or dimension specifications are then presented to a panel of experts, the size of which is an a priori decision, for their judgment of the items using a 4-point ordinal rating scale. Using the item evaluation, CVI calculations are applied to both the items and the entire instrument. The experts are asked, as a part of the content validity assessment, to identify areas of omission and to suggest areas of item improvement or modification. Admittedly, there are times when adherence to such rigor may not be feasible. When less stringent methods of determining validity are applied, it should not be said that content validity has been determined. Opponents of the process described in this article might argue that these specifications and expectations exceed practical application and that this process is therefore too rigorous. Content validity, by its nature and definition, demands rigor in its assessment, and its assessment is, in fact, critical. Such a rigorous process for content validity determination is offered because content validity is an inexpendable form of validity which is rapidly losing credibility due to its less than standardized and rigorous assessments. Content validity, different from all other forms of validity, is crucial to the understanding of research findings and their practical or theoretical applications. It is worth the rigor.

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Accession: 028069544

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