Present trends in biological psychiatry research on psychoses
Guelfi, J.D.; Mialet, J.P.
L'Encephale 7(5): 569-600
Most of the present biological hypothesis postulate biogenic amines disorders in schizophrenia: transmethylation and dopaminergic theory. Other systems which can modulate this neuro-transmitter, specially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, may be concerned: nor-epinephrine, serotonin or endorphins. A dysfunction in arousal and cerebral dominance has been described by the quantitative electroencephalography. Other electrophysiological studies are consistent with these results; they indicate an impairment of the level of arousal to which the disorders of attention and adaptation could be related. In affective psychoses the major hypothesis bear on norepinephrine or serotonin disorders. But other substances may have a role: acetylcholine and dopamine as well as electrolytic modifications of cell membranes or immunological or neuroendocrine disturbances. This biological and physiological fundamental research has numerous practical consequences as the discovery of compounds with a more specific effect, the research of biological and biochemical diagnostic indices, or the drawing up of biological indices for neuroleptics, antidepressants or lithium sensitivity.