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A contribution to the knowledge of the wood boring insect pests occurring in the arborescent willow stands of southern Moravia II

A contribution to the knowledge of the wood boring insect pests occurring in the arborescent willow stands of southern Moravia II

Sb Vys Sk Zemed Brne Rada C Spisy Fak Les 2: 113-149

Gradation of the alder weevil was described for continuous stands of the arborescent willow Salix alba L. Greatest mortality in the alder weevil occurred during its 1st 3 instar stages, in the spring, after the period of overwintering of the larvae; this was caused by an excessive sap flow into the feed marks from phloem tissues due to injuries. At this period, some 3/4 of the larval population perish. Also, the Diptera larvae living in the feed marks produced by the alder weevil act as predators of this beetle. Behavior of the alder weevil in the gradation area was that of a secondary pest; this insect gave preference to withering trees, and in these, to decaying parts; while dead trees, or the parts with dead phloem, were left uninvaded. It invaded stump heads of the willows left after a clear cutting, and heavily multiplied within. Degree of invasion by the alder weevil in the Lechovice willow stands corresponded with that of decay in the trees. The cause of decay in the stands differ throughout the forest district, it relates mainly to the age at which underwood is grown on the same stumps, stagnant water, and the alder weevil. The alder weevil can multiply to a larger degree in willow stump heads and in untreated poplar and alder sprouts; afterwards, it can invade poplar plantations. Of the other wood boring insects invading arobrescent willows in the area, Aromia moschata is of greatest importance; this pest's occurrence was relatively abundant. Though largely a secondary pest, it also invaded 1/4 of the willows showing no sign of decay. Its multiplication in the white willow stumps was intensive. Helicomyia ranks second with respect to harmfulness; it is a primary pestcausing injuries to the stem which the tree overgrows with difficulty. Apart from causing technical damage, this insect opens up gates for infection due to wood-destroying fungi. In over a half of the trees of S. alba there were galls produced by this insect pest. Another primary pest of the white willow is Dizygomyza sp., abundantly occurring in the stands near Lechovice. Damage due to this insect is insignificant. The other insect pests, such as Agrilus viridis, Anobiidae sp., Xiphy-dria prolongata, and Cossus cossus, which were found in the willows of the area studied, are consistently secondary pests.

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