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A study of twenty-four strains of Actinomyces and their relation to types of common scab of potato



A study of twenty-four strains of Actinomyces and their relation to types of common scab of potato



Ann Appl Biol 13(4): 580-644



The difficulty of reconciling various cultures of the scab organism with any defined type of A. scabies (Thaxter) Gussow is discussed. Inclusion of all such cultures into 1 A. scabies group has no justification. A technique has been evolved whereby the characters of Actinomyces may be maintained in subculture; 24 Actinomyces strains were isolated from potato scabs, etc., and the cultural and morphological characters worked out and described. Three pairs of duplicate strains appeared but, with these exceptions, the differences between strains were of specific rank. One of the species appears to be identical with Thaxter's original scab organism and is thus referred to A. scabies (Thaxter) Gussow; the remainder are new and accordingly have been named Actinomyces carnosus (p. 602), A. setonii (p. 604), A. marginatus (p. 606), A. praefecundus (p. 608), A. tenuis (p. 610), A. gracilis (p. 612), A. sampsonii (p. 614), A. viridis (p. 616), A. loidensis (p. 618), A. spiralis (p. 620), A. maculatus (p. 621), A. salmonicolor (p. 623), A. wedmorensis (p. 625), A. coroniformis (p. 626), A. clavifer (p. 630), A. praecox (p. 633), A. flavus (p. 635), A. craterifer (p. 637), and A. fimbriatus (p. 639). Eleven species were found to produce scab on potatoes. The various types of common scab are defined, and it is shown that type of scab is dependent on species of Actinomyces. The variety of potato may modify but can not materially change this type. A. scabies (Thaxter) Gussow emend. M. and B. produced a deeply furrowed scab apparently identical with "deep scab" of Thaxter. This species was also found to attack roots and stolons of potatoes. Occurrence of scab in virgin soils and predominance of certain scab types in certain soils and in different years are discussed.

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