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Barrett-karzinom - Diagnose, Screening, Surveillance, endoskopische Therapie, Pravention

Barrett-karzinom - Diagnose, Screening, Surveillance, endoskopische Therapie, Pravention

Zeitschrift fuer Gastroenterologie 45(12): 1264-1272

An adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus may also be designated as Barrett's carcinoma as it evolves from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus Currently is defined as a columnar metaplasia of the distal esophagus, as identified by endoscopy, that, upon histopathology, is confirmed to contain intestinal metaplasia. A different histological entity of columnar metaplasia of the distal esophagus is cardia-type mucosa which probably preceeds intestinal metaplasia, but lacks goblet cells typical for the latter. The conversion rate from Barrett's esophagus to Barrett's carcinoma amounts to 0.5 to 1% per year. Patients with reflux symptoms should undergo early endoscopy in order to search for Barrett's esophagus (screening). In those cases where Barrett's esophagus is identified, regular endoscopic controls should be scheduled (surveillance). The intervals for this have been defined by recent consented guidelines. The aim is to detect neoplasia early. Neoplasia confined to the epithelium or mucosal layer can mostly be treated by endoscopic resection. The depth of infiltration, as determined by histolopathology of the resected specimen, allows one to estimate the risk of lymph node metastasis, and therefore is crucial for the final judgment as to whether the endoscopic intervention may be considered curative. Individually, the risk of metastasis has to be weighed against the risk of morbidity and mortality conferred by the alternative surgical resection. The rapid increase of the incidence of Barrett's carcinoma in Western countries suggests that life style factors, in particular overweight, having a causal role. Data from interventional trials on prevention are, however, pending.

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