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Basic metallogenetic characteristics of large and medium-scale gold and copper deposits in northern Xinjiang, China



Basic metallogenetic characteristics of large and medium-scale gold and copper deposits in northern Xinjiang, China



Dizhi Lunping = Geological Review 47(6): 625-636



A number of large and medium-scale gold and copper deposits have been found in northern Xinjiang, including the Axi gold deposit, Lamasu copper deposit, Ashley copper (zinc) deposit, Salbulak gold deposit, and Kalatongke copper-nickel deposit. The geological and geochemical characteristics of these deposits are discussed, as well as their ore-forming environments and ore genesis. It is suggested that these deposits belong to five metallogenetic series, i.e., (1) volcanic-hosted massive sulphide copper-gold-polymetallic deposits (e.g., Ashley); (2) epithermal gold deposits (e.g., Axi and Kuoerzhenkuola); (3) copper-nickel sulphide deposits (e.g., Karatungke); (4) structurally altered rock gold deposits related to ductile shear zones (e.g., Sal'bulak, Saidu and Dolanasayi); and (5) skarn-type copper (molybdenum) deposits or copper (molybdenum) deposits related to skarn (e.g., Lamasu). Based on geochronological data of the studied deposits, mineralization mainly took place in two peak stages or epochs: the early Late Paleozoic (380-340 Ma) and the middle Late Palaeozoic (310-270 Ma), and these ore deposits occur only in several small metallogenetic areas. A detailed regional mineralization model is proposed. These deposits have multiple ore sources, complex ore genesis and polymetallogenetic epochs or stages, according to their sulphur and lead isotopic composition and REE distribution pattern.

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