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Carbon dioxide modified subcritical water chromatography


, : Carbon dioxide modified subcritical water chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. A 1200(1): 49-54

A novel method of increasing the elution strength in subcritical water chromatography (SWC) by adding CO2 to the water mobile phase is presented. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, this property is used in SWC to create an isocratic mobile phase with tunable elutropic strength in reversed-phase separations. Unfortunately, thermal stability of the stationary phase dictates the upper temperature limit and therefore also the minimum available mobile phase polarity. As a result SWC is often not very effective at eluting non-polar analytes. However, when CO2 is blended into subcritical water, a considerable reduction in mobile phase polarity results and improves such separations. For example, in conventional SWC1-octanol is not observed to elute from a PRP-1 column after several hours at the maximum column temperature of 200 degrees C. In contrast to this, when CO2 is present at 180 atm (1 atm = 101 325 Pa) in the mobile phase, 1-octanol elutes with good peak shape in less than 4 min at only 100 degrees C. The technique is applied to the separation of a variety of analytes which have previously been challenging or even not possible to analyze by conventional SWC. Further, the ability to use temperature and composition programming with the blended CO2/water mobile phase in SWC is also presented and discussed. Overall, the developed method considerably extends the range of non-polar analytes amenable to SWC analysis, while maintaining the beneficial conventional SWC features of flame ionization detection and environmental compatibility.

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Accession: 030409145

PMID: 18384798

DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.03.040

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