Effects of saponins, quercetin, eugenol, and cinnamaldehyde on fatty acid biohydrogenation of forage polyunsaturated fatty acids in dual-flow continuous culture fermenters

Lourenço, M.; Cardozo, P.W.; Calsamiglia, S.; Fievez, V.

Journal of Animal Science 86(11): 3045-3053

2008


ISSN/ISBN: 1525-3163
PMID: 18567728
DOI: 10.2527/jas.2007-0708
Accession: 031180631

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Abstract
Four different plant secondary metabolites were screened for their effect on rumen biohydrogenation of forage long-chain fatty acids, using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters. Treatments were as follows: control (no additive), positive control (12 mg/L of monensin), and plant extracts (500 and 1,000 mg/L of triterpene saponin; 250 and 500 mg/L of quercetin; 250 mg/L of eugenol; 500 mg/L of cinnamaldehyde). Monensin increased propionate, decreased acetate and butyrate proportions, and inhibited the complete biohydrogenation of fatty acids resulting in the accumulation of intermediates of the biohydrogenation process (C18:2 trans-11, cis-15 rather than C18:1 trans-11). Cinnamaldehyde decreased total VFA concentration and proportions of odd and branched-chain fatty acids in total fat effluent. Apparent biohydrogenation of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 was also less, and a shift from the major known biohydrogenation pathway to a secondary pathway of C18:2n-6 was observed, as evidenced by an accumulation of C18:1 trans-10 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Quercetin (500 mg/L) increased total VFA concentration, but no shifts in the pathways or extent of biohydrogenation were observed. Eugenol resulted in the accumulation of C18:1 trans-15 and C18:1 cis-15, end products of an alternative biohydrogenation pathway of C18:3n-3. Triterpene saponins did not affect the fermentation pattern, the biohydrogenation pathways, or the extent of biohydrogenation. At the doses tested in this study, we could only show a direct relation between changes in the rumen fatty acid metabolism and the presence of cinnamaldehyde but not for eugenol, quercetin, or triterpene saponins.