+ Translate

Production of activated carbon from coconut shell Optimization using response surface methodology

, : Production of activated carbon from coconut shell Optimization using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology 99(11): 4887-4895

The production of activated carbon from coconut shell treated with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). Fifteen combinations of the three variables namely; impregnation ratio (1, 1.5, and 2); activation time (10, 20, and 30 min); and activation temperature (400, 450, and 500 degrees C) were optimized based on the responses evaluated (yield, bulk density, average pore diameter, small pore diameter, and number of pores in a unit area). Pore diameters were directly measured from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Individual second-order response surface models were developed and contour plots were generated for the optimization analysis. The optimum range identified for impregnation ratio was from 1.345 to 2, while for the activation time was from 14.9 to 23.9 min. For the activation temperature it was from 394 to 416 degrees C. The optimum points are 1.725, 19.5 min, and 416 degrees C, respectively. The models were able to predict well the values of the responses when the optimum variable parameters were validated as proven by the generally acceptable values of the residual percentages. Direct characterization of the pores using the SEM was found to be a good technique to actually see the pores and get actual measurements. Additionally, RSM has also proven to be a good tool in optimization analysis to get not only optimum production condition points but ranges, which are crucial for the flexibility of the production process, as well.

(PDF same-day service: $19.90)

Order PDF Full Text


Click here to order any other PDF Full Text

Accession: 032968746

PMID: 17993271

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.09.042

PDF Full Text: Submit

Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:

Other references

Anonymous, 2013: Splenic infarction associated with bacterial endocarditis and aortic valve vegetations. Of patients with left-sided endocarditis 20-47% have septic embolization to the spleen with varying degrees of clinical presentation. The natural history varies based on the size and location of the infarct. Larger and more peripheral infarctions...

Thomas D.P.; Delbridge L.; Morris D.; Howell M.J., 1984: Cyclohexanone extraction an improvement in the thiobarbituric acid method for the determination of nonenzymatic glycosylation of hair and epidermal keratin. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation 44(5): 457-462

Bergh, O., 1974: Preliminary results of trials in trellising, spacing and summer-pruning of canning peaches for a higher production per unit of surface area. Data are graphically presented on the 8-year yields of canning peaches planted at 5 different spacings. The highest early and total yields were obtained with a spacing of 4.0 X 5.3 m, followed by 6.6 X 3.3 m. The importance is stressed of light as...

Mulargia, Francesco; Castellaro, Silvia; Schweig, Eugene ; Williams, Robert, 2011: Elastic and anelastic seismic passive imaging. Seismological Research Letters 82.2

Musarrat, A. R.; Firoza, K.; Shahina, F., 2006: Study of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in N.W.F.P. and Sindh, Pakistan. During 2003-2004 an extensive survey Oil the occurrence and geographical distribution of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) in NWFP and Sindh was Undertaken. A total of 453 samples comprising 19 species of plants were collected from 36 localiti...

Sture S.; Ko H. Y.; Budiman J. S.; Ontuna A. K., 1985: Development and application of a directional shear cell. Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering = Comptes Rendus du Congres International de Mecanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations 11: 1061-1064

Payan, L. A.; Johnson, A. W.; Littrell, R. H., 1987: Effects of nematicides and herbicides alone or combined on Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch and development. The effects of the nematicides carbofuran (C) and fenamiphos (F) and the herbicides metribuzin (M) and trifluralin (T), alone and in combination, on hatching, penetration, development and reproduction of M. incognita race 3 were determined under l...

Thakker, D. R.; Standifer, K. M., 2002: Induction of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 contributes to the cross-talk between mu and ORL1 receptors following prolonged agonist exposure. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying cross-tolerance between mu and opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL1) receptor agonists were investigated using two human neuroblastoma cell lines endogenously expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor...

Devine S. B.; Ferrell R. E., 1970: Matrix interference in the analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of Na (super +) , K (super +) , Ca (super ++) , and Mg (super ++) in marine sediment interstitial water. Pages 207 1970

Niehuis, Manfred., 2003: Record of the dragonfly Leucorrhinia rubicunda L - in the south Palatinate Insecta Odonata Fund der Nordischen Moosjungfer - Leucorrhinia rubicunda L - in der Suedpfalz Insecta Odonata. Fauna und Flora in Rheinland-Pfalz, 101: 279-284