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Resistance to root-lesion nematodes Pratylenchus thornei and P-neglectus in synthetic hexaploid wheats and their durum and Aegilops tauschii parents



Resistance to root-lesion nematodes Pratylenchus thornei and P-neglectus in synthetic hexaploid wheats and their durum and Aegilops tauschii parents



Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 59(5): 432-446



Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus thornei Sher and Allen and P. neglectus ( Rensch) Filipijev and Schuurmans Stekhoven) cause substantial yield loss to wheat crops in the northern grain region of Australia. Resistance to P. thornei for use in wheat breeding programs was sought among synthetic hexaploid wheats (2n= 6x = 42, AABBDD) produced through hybridisations of Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum ( Desf.) Husn ( 2n= 4x = 28, AABB) with Aegilops tauschii Coss. ( 2n= 2x = 14, DD). Resistance was determined for the synthetic hexaploid wheats and their durum and Ae. tauschii parents from the numbers of nematodes in the roots of plants grown for 16 weeks in pots of pasteurised soil inoculated with P. thornei. Fifty-nine (32%) of 186 accessions of synthetic hexaploid wheats had lower numbers of nematodes than Gatcher Selection 50a (GS50a), a partially resistant bread wheat. Greater frequencies of partial resistance were present in the durum parents (72% of 39 lines having lower nematode numbers than GS50a) and in the Ae. tauschii parents (55% of 53 lines). The 59 synthetic hexaploids were re- tested in a second experiment along with their parents. In a third experiment, 11 resistant synthetic hexaploid wheats and their F-1 hybrids with Janz, a susceptible bread wheat, were tested and the F(1)s were found to give nematode counts intermediate between the respective two parents. Synthetic hexaploid wheats with higher levels of resistance resulted from hybridisations where both the durum and Ae. tauschii parents were partially resistant, rather than where only one parent was partially resistant. These results suggest that resistance to P. thornei in synthetic hexaploid wheats is polygenic, with resistances located both in the D genome from Ae. tauschii and in the A and/or B genomes from durum. Five synthetic hexaploid wheats were selected for further study on the basis of ( 1) a high level of resistance to P. thornei of the synthetic hexaploid wheats and of both their durum and Ae. tauschii parents, ( 2) being representative of both Australian and CIMMYT ( International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre) durums, and ( 3) being representative of the morphological subspecies and varieties of Ae. tauschii. These 5 synthetic hexaploid wheats were also shown to be resistant to P. neglectus, whereas GS50a and 2 P. thornei-resistant derivatives were quite susceptible. Results of P. thornei resistance of F(1)s and F(2)s from a half diallel of these 5 synthetic hexaploid wheats, GS50a, and Janz from another study indicate polygenic additive resistance and better general combining ability for the synthetic hexaploid wheats than for GS50a. Published molecular marker studies on a doubled haploid population between the synthetic hexaploid wheat with best general combining ability ( CPI133872) and Janz have shown quantitative trait loci for resistance located in all 3 genomes. Synthetic hexaploid wheats offer a convenient way of introgressing new resistances to P. thornei and P. neglectus from both durum and Ae. tauschii into commercial bread wheats.

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Accession: 033206186

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DOI: 10.1071/ar07222


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