Absorption enhancers for nasal drug delivery
Davis, S.S.; Illum, L.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics 42(13): 1107-1128
ISSN/ISBN: 0312-5963 PMID: 14531723 DOI: 10.2165/00003088-200342130-00003
This paper describes the basic concepts for the transmucosal delivery of drugs, and in particular the use of the nasal route for delivery of challenging drugs such as polar low-molecular-weight drugs and peptides and proteins. Strategies for the exploitation of absorption enhancers for the improvement of nasal delivery are discussed, including consideration of mechanisms of action and the correlation between toxic effect and absorption enhancement. Selected enhancer systems, such as cyclodextrins, phospholipids, bioadhesive powder systems and chitosan, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of these enhancers in preclinical and clinical studies are given. Methods for assessing irritancy and damage to the nasal membrane from the use of absorption enhancers are also described. Finally, the mucosal use of absorption enhancers (chitosan) for the improved nasal delivery of vaccines is reported with reference to recent phase I/II clinical studies.