Food and Nutrient Intake, Dietary Practices, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index of Adolescents from Low-Income and High-Income Households
FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abstract 590
The objective of this study was to compare the food and nutrient intake, body mass index and the association of dietary practices and physical activity of adolescents from low and high income households. The data were obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996. A nationally representative sample of adolescents, 1,469, ages 12-19 years was used in the study. The variables included food intake, food energy and nutrient intake, dietary practices, physical activity, and body mass index derived from one day of dietary intakes. T-tests were used to compare the food energy, and food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. In almost all comparisons, high-income adolescents whether male or female, non-overweight or overweight had mean food and nutrient intakes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels that were significantly higher than those of low-income adolescents. Mean intakes of whole milk were significantly higher among adolescents from low-income households when compared to adolescents from high-income households, 121.9 g and 60.3 g, respectively (p=0.00). Males whether from low-income or high-income households had significantly higher mean dietary intakes than females. Females from low-income households&39; consumed lower amounts of vitamin A, 732.6 RE, and vitamin C, 86.4 mg when compared to males from low-income households 1068.9 RE and 117.6 mg, respectively (p=0.00). The body mass index values from high-income households were lower compared to low-income households 22.0 kg/m2 and 21.1 kg/m2 respectively (p=0.01). Significant associations of dietary practices and physical activity in adolescents form low and high income households were found when using chi-square tests (p<0.001).