+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Low iron bioavailability, low heme iron, and poor nutrient density in diets of children of low-income families residing in Hartford, CT



Low iron bioavailability, low heme iron, and poor nutrient density in diets of children of low-income families residing in Hartford, CT



FASEB Journal 17(4-5): Abstract No. 445-3



Previous research in low-income children (1-3 years old) residing in Hartford, CT indicated a 33% occurrence of anemia. This study identified the contribution of heme (H) and non-heme (NH) iron (Fe) and bioavailability of Fe consumed (Reddy et al., 2001). Review of 24-hr diet recalls for 94 children (320 meals, 136 snacks) was analyzed (NDS-R 4.05_33, Minneapolis, MN). No difference exists in the amount of Fe consumed between meals (p=.221) or between snacks (p=.763); however, less Fe is consumed from snacks than meals (p<.001). Breakfast cereals account for 7 of the 10 highest meal Fe intakes and 31% of total NH Fe intake. 85% of children reportedly consumed more than the RDA for energy (median=1743 kcals, SD+/-607) and 75% consumed more than the RDA for Fe (median=13 gms, SD+/-9.9) per day. Heme Fe accounts for only 3.4% of Fe consumed. Mean NH Fe bioavailability is 7.4% (SD+/-2.8%) for an overall H and NH iron bioavailability of 8.1% (SD+/-3.1%). Density of Fe consumed (Bioavailable iron consumed mg/kcal/day) is .00059 mg/kcal (SD+/-.00035). To meet the RDA for energy and Fe a child must consume .00098 mg/kcal. Only 10% of this sample would meet the RDA for Fe if caloric intake is adjusted to recommended levels. The intakes of this sample differ markedly from current nutrition guidelines for children that are based on 18% Fe bioavailability and 11% heme Fe contribution. Funded by USDA/ERS.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 035242366

Download citation: RISBibTeXText


Related references

Combating iron deficiency Bioavailability of iron from two elemental iron powders and a heme iron supplement in humans. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abst 130 21, 2004

Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans. Food and Function 8(5): 1994-1999, 2017

Evaluation of clams as a food source of iron: Total iron, heme iron, aluminum, and in vitro iron bioavailability in live and processed clams. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 25(1): 47-55, 2012

Dietary heme iron does not prevent postgastrectomy anemia but fructooligosaccharides improve bioavailability of heme iron in rats. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition 69(5): 348-355, 1999

Calculated available iron, heme iron and non-heme iron in diets of a group of men. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 43(2): 132-136, 1982

Available iron intakes of school children consuming diets differing in iron density. Nutrition Reports International 35(5): 1015-1022, 1987

Relative iron bioavailability of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA in combination with elemental reduced iron in rats From 40/60 fortified Kelloggs corn flakesTM/basal diets. FASEB Journal 13(4 Part 1): A242, 1999

Initial uptake and absorption of nonheme iron and absorption of heme iron in humans are unaffected by the addition of calcium as cheese to a meal with high iron bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76(2): 419-425, 2002

The bioavailability of iron, zinc, protein and vitamin A is highly variable in French individual diets: Impact on nutrient inadequacy assessment and relation with the animal-to-plant ratio of diets. Food Chemistry 238: 73-81, 2018

Heat treatment on heme iron and iron-containing proteins in meat: iron absorption in humans from diets containing cooked meat fractions. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7(1): 49-54, 1996

In vitro bioavailability of iron from the heme analogue sodium iron chlorophyllin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(2): 1327-1332, 2010

The difference of iron bioavailability between enzyme treated heme iron preparation and ferric citrate in females rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi = Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science 50(1): 31-36, 1997

Adaptation of iron absorption in men consuming diets with high or low iron bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(1): 94-102, 2000

II. Bioavailability of iron of enriched bread diets with iron and amino acids. Egyptian Journal of Food Science 20(2): 211-220, 1992

Adaptation of iron absorption in premenopausal women consuming diets with high or low iron bioavailability. FASEB Journal 15(5): A974, 2001