Special features of intensive care by toxic-shock-syndrome Review and case report of a TSST-1-associated toxic-shock-syndrome with adult respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organe failure from a staphylococcal panaritium
Lang, C.; Behnke, H.; Bittersohl, J.; Eberhart, L.; Walthers, E.; Sommer, F.; Wulf, H.; Geldner, G.
Anaesthesist 52(9): 805-813
Toxic-shock-syndrome (TSS) is an acute febrile, exanthematous illness caused by toxins such as toxic-shock-syndrome-toxine-1 (TSST-1) and other endotoxines from Staphylococcus aureus with an incidence of 0.5 per 100.000 inhabitants. Patients with menstrual toxic-shock-syndrome (menstrual-TSS) usually have TSS associated with menstruation and use of a vaginal device such as tampons. Other patients with non-menstrual toxic-shock-syndrome (non-menstrual-TSS) have a focus of staphylooccal infection such as a surgical wound infection or soft tissue abscess. TSS usually presents with fever, pharyngitis, diarrhoea, vomiting, myalgia and may progress rapidly (within hours) to signs of hypovolaemic hypotension and shock. In some cases TSS is associated with multisystem failure including shock, renal failure, myocardial failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. In its acute phase the diagnosis of TSS is often uncertain because of its initial symptoms are non-specific and numerous conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. But obviously less incidence, the signs and symptoms of toxic-shock-syndrome should be recognised early to permit successful therapy. The site of infection should be adequately drained and treated with antimicrobial therapy. Possible complications including ARDS and myocardial failure require a thorough understanding of its underlying pathophysiology to ensure appropriate intensive-care treatment. Only if appropriate therapy is instituted as early as possible, most of patients will be able to survive their toxic-shock-syndrome. In other cases TSS can be a rapidly progressive and perhaps lethal ending disease because of possible multiple organe failure such as ARDS.