+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Natural variation of barley vernalization requirements: implication of quantitative variation of winter growth habit as an adaptive trait in East Asia



Natural variation of barley vernalization requirements: implication of quantitative variation of winter growth habit as an adaptive trait in East Asia



Plant and Cell Physiology 52(5): 775-784



In many temperate plant species, prolonged cold treatment, known as vernalization, is one of the most critical steps in the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In contrast to recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of vernalization in Arabidopsis non-vernalization mutants or the spring growth habits of cereal crops such as wheat and barley, natural variations in winter growth habits and their geographic distribution are poorly understood. We analyzed varietal variation and the geographic distribution of the degree of vernalization requirements in germplasms of domesticated barley and wild barley collections. We found a biased geographic distribution of vernalization requirements in domesticated barley: Western regions were strongly associated with a higher degree of spring growth habits, and the extreme winter growth habits were localized to Far Eastern regions including China, Korea and Japan. Both wild accessions and domesticated landraces, the regions of distribution of which overlapped each other, mainly belonged to the moderate class of winter growth habit. As a result of quantitative evaluations performed in this study, we provide evidence that the variation in the degree of winter growth habit in recombinant inbred lines was controlled by quantitative trait loci including three vernalization genes (VRN1, VRN2 and VRN3) that account for 37.9% of the variation in vernalization requirements, with unknown gene(s) explaining the remaining two-thirds of the variation. This evidence implied that the Far Eastern accessions might be a genetically differentiated group derived for an evolutionary reason, resulting in their greater tendency towards a winter growth habit.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036089307

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 21482579

DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcr046


Related references

Variation in the vernalization requirements in winter wheat cultivars. 1975

Application of quantitative trait locus mapping to the development of winter-habit malting barley. Plant Breeding 115(1): 43-51, 1996

Natural variation in a homolog of Antirrhinum CENTRORADIALIS contributed to spring growth habit and environmental adaptation in cultivated barley. Nature Genetics 44(12): 1388-1392, 2012

Populational variation in winter habit in barley. Vses shkola molod uchenykh i spetsialistov po teorii i prakt selektsii rast, 1979 Tez dokl: 50-51, 1979

Allelic Variation at the Vernalization Genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, and Vrn-B3 in Chinese Wheat Cultivars and Their Association with Growth Habit. Crop Science 48(2): 8-70, 2008

Allelic variation at the vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, and Vrn-B3 in Chinese wheat cultivars and their association with growth habit. Crop Science: 2, 458-470, 2008

A hyperactive quantitative trait locus allele of Arabidopsis BRX contributes to natural variation in root growth vigor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(18): 8475-8480, 2010

Quantitative modulation of polycomb silencing underlies natural variation in vernalization. Science 337(6094): 584-587, 2012

Variation in the epigenetic silencing of FLC contributes to natural variation in Arabidopsis vernalization response. Genes and Development 20(22): 3079-3083, 2006

Edward East on the Mendelian Basis of Quantitative Trait Variation. Genetics 204(4): 1321-1323, 2018

EPR studies of Mn (super 2+) in the Loess Plateau of central China; implication for variation of the East Asia summer monsoon. Chinese Science Bulletin 43(1): 72-75, 1998

The genetic and molecular origin of natural variation for the fragrance trait in an elite Malaysian aromatic rice through quantitative trait loci mapping using SSR and gene-based markers. Gene 555(2): 101-107, 2015

The quantitative genetics of floral trait variation in Lobelia: potential constraints on adaptive evolution. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 58(4): 732-740, 2004

Genetic variation in barley of crossability with wheat and its quantitative trait loci analysis. Euphytica 103(2): 187-193, 1998

Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with protein expression variation in barley grains. Molecular Breeding 27(3): 301-314, 2011