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Stage dependent susceptibility to copper in Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae


Stage dependent susceptibility to copper in Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae







DOI: 10.1002/etc.674

Copper toxicity in different embryonic and larval stages of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum was evaluated by means of continuous and 24-h pulse treatments in 12 different developmental stages. Lethal concentrations (LC) of 1, 5, and 9% of continuous treatment with Cu from early blastula (S.4), complete operculum (S.25) and hind limb bud (S.28) stages were plotted from 24 to 168?h, resulting for continuous treatments from S.4 in a 24-h LC5 of 137 g Cu2+/L and a168-h LC5 of 19.5? g Cu2+/L. This result was in agreement with pulse treatments that showed a high resistance to Cu at blastula and gastrula stages, while the organogenic period, between muscular response (S.18) and open mouth (S.21), resulted very susceptible to this metal. Continuous treatments from S.25 showed no significant differences along exposure time (168-h LC5= 51? g Cu2+/L), while in the case of S.28 toxicity increased slightly from a 24-h LC5 of 138.6? g Cu2+/L to a 168-h LC5 of 14? g Cu2+/L, pointing out that although the larval period was significantly more resistant to Cu there was also a remarkable stage-dependent susceptibility to this metal. Copper teratogenic potential was approximately two, and main adverse effects were reduced body size, axial flexure, microcephaly, acephaly, mouth malformations, agenesis or underdeveloped gills, agenesis or underdeveloped tail and hydropsy. The results were discussed considering Cu toxicity mechanisms, an evolutionary perspective and environmental protection purposes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.

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Accession: 036203459

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