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Phenotype-genotype correlation and follow-up in adult patients with hypokalaemia of renal origin suggesting Gitelman syndrome



Phenotype-genotype correlation and follow-up in adult patients with hypokalaemia of renal origin suggesting Gitelman syndrome



European Journal of Endocrinology 165(4): 665-673



Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a tubulopathy caused by SLC12A3 gene mutations, which lead to hypokalaemic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of SLC12A3 gene mutations in adult hypokalaemic patients; to compare the phenotype of homozygous, heterozygous and non-mutated patients; and to determine the efficiency of treatment. Clinical, biological and genetic data were recorded in 26 patients. Screening for the SLC12A3 gene detected two mutations in 15 patients (six homozygous and nine compound heterozygous), one mutation in six patients and no mutation in five patients. There was no statistical difference in clinical symptoms at diagnosis between the three groups. Systolic blood pressure tended to be lower in patients with two mutations (P=0.16). Hypertension was unexpectedly detected in four patients. Five patients with two mutated alleles and two with heterozygosity had severe manifestations of GS. Significant differences were observed between the three groups in blood potassium, chloride, magnesium, supine aldosterone, 24 h urine chloride and magnesium levels and in modification of the diet in renal disease. Mean blood potassium levels increased from 2.8 ± 0.3, 3.5 ± 0.5 and 3.2 ± 0.3 before treatment to 3.2 ± 0.5, 3.7 ± 0.6 and 3.7 ± 0.3 mmol/l with treatment in groups with two (P=0.003), one and no mutated alleles respectively. In adult patients referred for renal hypokalaemia, we confirmed the presence of mutations of the SLC12A3 gene in 80% of cases. GS was more severe in patients with two mutated alleles than in those with one or no mutated alleles. High blood pressure should not rule out the diagnosis, especially in older patients.

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Accession: 036217872

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PMID: 21753071

DOI: 10.1530/EJE-11-0224


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