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Lead concentrations in fine particulate matter after the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Xi’an, China



Lead concentrations in fine particulate matter after the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Xi’an, China



Atmospheric Environment 46(none): 217-224



Daily concentrations of lead (Pb) were determined for PM2.5samples collected from an urban location in Xi an, China from 27 to 29 to assess the effects of the phasing out of leaded gasoline in 2. The Pb concentrations (annual average: .36 ?g/m, range: below detection limit to 2.631 ?g/m) have declined after the phasing out of leaded gasoline, but the concentrations were still higher than those reported in many other cities. Seasonal variations of Pb were significant, with high concentrations in winter, presumably due to the burning of coal, and low concentrations in summer, due to a deep mixed layer and scavenging of aerosols by precipitation. Correlation analyses and enrichment factor calculations both indicated that anthropogenic sources had a large influence on atmospheric Pb. The lead isotope ratios were low in winter (the averagePb/Pb ratio was .843 .32;Pb/Pb was 1.98 .58) and high in summer (Pb/Pb was .86 .32;Pb/Pb was 2.39 .57), suggesting that coal combustion was the major Pb source in winter and vehicular emission was the major Pb source in summer. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model indicated that there were five major sources for Pb in PM2.5. Coal combustion was the major contributor, accounting for 39.% PM2.5mass, followed by vehicular emissions (3.4%). Other contributors included 17.8% from industrial emissions, 11.6% from biomass burning, and 1.2% from fugitive dust.Pb concentrations (average: .36 ?g/mduring 27 to 29) have declined after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Pb concentrations in Xi an are still higher than those reported in many other cities. Coal combustion was the strongest source for PM Please choose payment method:






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Accession: 036240389

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DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.078


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