Exospheres and Energetic Neutral Atoms of Mars, Venus and Titan
Coimbra, Joao Carlos; Pinto, Iraja Damiani; Wurdig, Norma Luiza; Do Carmo, Dermeval Aparecido
Space Science Reviews 162(1-4): 213-266
ISSN/ISBN: 0038-6308 DOI: 10.1007/s11214-011-9834-4
Our understanding of the upper atmosphere of unmagnetized bodies such as Mars, Venus and Titan has improved significantly in this decade. Recent observations by in situ and remote sensing instruments on board Mars Express, Venus Express and Cassini have revealed characteristics of the neutral upper atmospheres (exospheres) and of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). The ENA environment in the vicinity of the bodies is by itself a significant study field, but ENAs are also used as a diagnostic tool for the exosphere and the interaction with the upstream plasmas. Synergy between theoretical and modeling work has also improved considerably. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of our understanding of the neutral environment in the vicinity of unmagnetized planets.