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HIV-1 Tat protein decreases dopamine transporter cell surface expression and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function in rat striatal synaptosomes



HIV-1 Tat protein decreases dopamine transporter cell surface expression and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function in rat striatal synaptosomes



Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 7(3): 629-639



The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) proteins interact as a biochemical complex to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have reported that HIV-1Tat(1-86) decreases the specific [(3)H]DA uptake and [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding sites without a change in total DAT immunoreactivity in rat striatum (Zhu et al., 2009b). The present study determined the effects of Tat on DAT phosphorylation and trafficking, and vesicular [(3)H]DA uptake. Pre-incubation of rat striatal synaptosomes with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (1 μM) completely blocked Tat(1-86)-induced reduction of [(3)H]DA uptake, indicating that Tat regulates DAT function through a PKC-dependent mechanism. After exposure of synaptosomes to Tat(1-86) (1 μM), DAT immunoreactivity was decreased in plasma membrane enriched fractions (P3) and increased in vesicle-enriched fractions (P4) relative to controls without change in total synaptosomal fractions (P2), suggesting that Tat-induced inhibition of DA uptake is attributable to DAT internalization. Although both DAT and VMAT2 proteins are essential for the regulation of DA disposition in synapse and cytosol, Tat inhibited the specific [(3)H]DA uptake into vesicles (P4) and synaptosomes (P2) by 35 % and 26 %, respectively, inferring that the inhibitory effect of Tat was more profound in VMAT2 protein than in DAT protein. Taken together, the current study reveals that Tat inhibits DAT function through a PKC and trafficking-dependent mechanism and that Tat impacts the dopaminergic tone by regulating both DAT and VMAT2 proteins. These findings provide new insight into understanding the pharmacological mechanisms of HIV-1 viral protein-induced dysfunction of DA neurotransmission in HIV-infected patients.

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Accession: 036400292

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 22570010

DOI: 10.1007/s11481-012-9369-9


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