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Surface roughness of an iceptisol related with soil tillage and compaction under natural rainfall



Surface roughness of an iceptisol related with soil tillage and compaction under natural rainfall







A rugosidade superficial do solo uma caracter stica importante, pois influencia a infiltra o e a armazenagem de gua no solo, a reten o de sedimentos na superf cie e a eros o h drica. Por sua vez, a rugosidade influenciada pelo preparo, umidade e compacta o do solo, pelos res duos culturais, pelo efeito residual do uso do solo e pela erosividade da chuva. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de quantificar o efeito do tipo de preparo, da compacta o do solo e da erosividade da chuva sobre o ndice de rugosidade superficial ao acaso modificado (RRM), em um experimento conduzido sob chuva natural em um Cambissolo H mico Alum nico l ptico, com declividade m dia de 0,03 m m-1, entre setembro e novembro de 2008, em Lages, SC, com os seguintes tratamentos: (1) superf cie quase lisa em solo compactado (LIC); superf cie quase lisa em solo n o compactado (LINC); uma ara o e duas gradagens em solo compactado (PCC); uma ara o e duas gradagens em solo n o compactado (PCNC); uma escarifica o em solo compactado (ESC); e uma escarifica o em solo n o compactado (ESNC). O microrrelevo do solo foi medido com rugos metro mec nico de varetas, em seis oportunidades: imediatamente antes e imediatamente ap s instalar os tratamentos; e ap s a ocorr ncia de cada um dos valores de erosividade (EI30) da chuva: 136, 190, 630 e 265 MJ mm ha-1 h-O preparo do solo com ara o e gradagens e com escarifica o aumentou o ndice RRM em rela o a antes do preparo, tanto em solo n o compactado quanto em solo compactado. O aumento desse ndice foi de 3,72 vezes em ara o e gradagens e de 3,88 vezes na escarifica o, na m dia do solo compactado e n o compactado. A compacta o do solo aumentou o ndice RRM, independentemente do tipo de preparo. No caso da ara o e gradagens, o aumento nesse ndice foi de 4,58 vezes no solo compactado e de 3,04 vezes no n o compactado, logo ap s o preparo; em se tratando da escarifica o, em solo compactado o aumento pelo preparo foi de 5,49 vezes e de 2,61 vezes no solo n o compactado, tamb m logo ap s o preparo. A erosividade da chuva diminuiu o ndice RRM, independentemente do tipo de preparo e da compacta o do solo, cuja rela o foi descrita pelo modelo y = ae-bx.Surface roughness is a relevant soil property in terms of its influence on soil water infiltration and storage, sediment retention on the soil surface, and water erosion. In turn, surface roughness is influenced by soil tillage, moisture, compaction, crop residues, residual effects of land use, and by rainfall erosivity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of soil tillage type, soil compaction and rainfall erosivity on surface roughness. The experiment assessed an Inceptsol with a relatively flat slope (0.03 m m-1) under natural rainfall in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from September to November 2008, with the following treatments: 1) nearly smooth surface of compacted soil (SSC); 2) nearly smooth surface of uncompacted soil (SSNC); 3) tillage (plowing and two diskings) of compacted soil (SPC); 4) tillage (plowing and two diskings) of uncompacted soil (SPNC); 5) tillage (chiseling) of compacted soil (SCC); 6) tillage (chiseling) of uncompacted soil (SCNC). The micro-relief was determined with the contact styli of a rugosimeter six times: immediately before and immediately after treatment application; and after the occurrence of each of the following rainfall erosivity (EI30) values: 136; 190; 630; and 265 MJ mm ha-1 h-After tillage with plowing and disking and with chiseling the modified random roughness index was higher than before, in compacted and uncompacted soil. The random roughness was on average 3.72 times higher after plowing and disking and 3.88 times higher after chiseling, in compacted and uncompacted soil. The surface roughness index increased in the compacted soil, independently of the soil till type. In the case of plowing and disking, the increase was 4.58 times in the compacted and 3.04 times in uncompacted soil, immediately after tilling, while in the case of chiseling, the roughness index increased 5.49 times in the compacted and 2.61 times in the uncompacted soil, also immediately after tilling. Rainfall erosivity decreased the soil surface random roughness, independently of soil tillage and compaction; the relation was described by the model y = ae-bx.

Accession: 036525268

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