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Changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression patterns and activity of HDAC inhibitors in urothelial cancers

Changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression patterns and activity of HDAC inhibitors in urothelial cancers

Urologic Oncology 31(8): 1770-1779

To determine histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoenzyme expression patterns in urothelial cancer tissues and cell lines and investigate their potential to predict the efficacy of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat. Expression of HDAC mRNAs was determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 18 urothelial cancer cell lines (UCC), normal uroepithelial controls (NUC), 24 urothelial cancer tissues, and 12 benign controls. were compared with published microarray data. Effects of pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat and on UCCs were determined by viability and apoptosis assays, cell cycle analysis, and measurements of p21CIP1, thymidylate synthase (TS), and EZH2. In addition, protein expression levels of HDACs were investigated in UCCs. Prominent changes in UCCs were HDAC2 and/or HDAC8 up-regulation in 11 of 18 cell lines and decreased expression of HDAC4, HDAC5, and/or HDAC7 mRNA in 15 of 18 cell lines. In cancer tissues, HDAC8 was likewise significantly up-regulated (P = 0.002), whereas HDAC2 up-regulation was detected only in a subset of tumors (9/24, P = 0.085). Overexpression of HDAC2 and HDAC8 mRNA did not correspond with the protein level. Vorinostat induced G2/M arrest, an increase in the sub-G1 fraction, up-regulation of p21, and down-regulation of TS in all UCC. Effects on EZH2 and PARP cleavage as well as activation of caspase 3/7 differed between cell lines. Associations between the overall sensitivity to the pan-HDACi vorinostat and overexpression of HDAC2 and HDAC8 mRNA were not observed. In urothelial cancer, up-regulation of HDAC2 and HDAC8 and down-regulation of HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7 mRNA are common findings. The treatment effect of the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was variable in UCCs and up-regulation of HDAC2 and HDAC8 was not predictive for treatment response. Whether selective targeting of HDAC2, HDAC8, or other HDACs deregulated in urothelial cancer (e.g., HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7) result in a more consistent treatment response needs further investigation.

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Accession: 036562585

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PMID: 22944197

DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.06.015

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