+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Clinical and molecular characteristics of the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 infection with severe or fatal disease from 2009 to 2011 in Shenzhen, China



Clinical and molecular characteristics of the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 infection with severe or fatal disease from 2009 to 2011 in Shenzhen, China



Journal of Medical Virology 85(3): 405-412



In the past 3 years, the 2009 pandemic influenza virus H1N1 (pH1N1) has led to many severe or fatal cases. The virus-related factors that cause severe or fatal disease are not clear. The clinical and molecular characteristics of pH1N1 infections with severe or fatal disease were examined to understand the correlation between pH1N1 infection and disease severity. Since 2009, three pH1N1 influenza epidemic outbreaks have occurred in Shenzhen, China. One hundred forty-six severe cases were confirmed in the first wave in 2009. In severe cases, a high proportion (49.3%) of patents displayed high fever (>39.0°C), and 73.2% of patients had pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Seven fatal cases were recorded: three with viral encephalitis and four with respiratory failure. The results of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses from fatal or severe cases were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree. Four substitutions (D222G, D222N, D222E, and Q223R) were observed on the 220-loop of the receptor-binding sites of the HA gene. Both D222G and D222N were associated statistically with severe disease. The 2011 viruses had evolved into two distinct branches. Ten specific point mutations occurred in the 2011 virus. In summary, high fever, lower respiratory tract infections and serious complications were the main features of severe cases. Gene variation seemed not to be the main reason for severe disease. Vaccination is the effective mean to prevent infection and severe disease.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036655352

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23280524

DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23295


Related references

Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 3 early cases of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, People's Republic of China, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(9): 1418-1422, 2009

A prospective comparison of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus and seasonal influenza A viruses in Guangzhou, South China in 2009. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 65(3): 208-214, 2012

Hospitalized children with 2009 influenza a (H1N1) infection in Shenzhen, China, November-December 2009. Pediatric Pulmonology 46(3): 246-252, 2011

Molecular evolution of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses in Sendai, Japan, during 2009-2011. Virus Genes 2013, 2013

Clinical features and risk factors for severe and critical pregnant women with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza infection in China. Bmc Infectious Diseases 12: 29, 2012

Association between seasonal influenza vaccination in 2008-2009 and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection among school students from Kobe, Japan, April-June 2009. Clinical Infectious Diseases 54(3): 381-383, 2012

Hospitalised Malaysian children with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza: clinical characteristics, risk factors for severe disease and comparison with the 2002-2007 seasonal influenza. Singapore Medical Journal 57(2): 81-86, 2017

Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 viruses associated with severe and fatal infections. Virus Research 151(2): 192-199, 2010

Characteristics of paediatric patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and severe, oxygen-requiring pneumonia in the Tokyo region, 1 September-31 October 2009. Euro Surveillance 15(36):, 2010

In situ molecular identification of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Neuraminidase in patients with severe and fatal infections during a pandemic in Mexico City. Bmc Infectious Diseases 13: 20, 2013

Clinical and pathological findings of fatal 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in Estonia. Medicina 48(1): 48-56, 2012

Risk factors for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. Clinical Infectious Diseases 52(4): 457-465, 2011

Observed association between the HA1 mutation D222G in the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus and severe clinical outcome, Norway 2009-2010. Euro Surveillance 15(9), 2010

Prevalence of Oseltamivir-Resistant 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus among Patients with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection in NRITLD, Tehran, Iran. Tanaffos 10(1): 8, 2011

Low hemagglutinin-titer strains of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus circulated in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, during the 2009-2011 influenza seasons. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 64(5): 448-450, 2012