+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E



Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E



Viruses 4(12): 3689-3700



In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960's to early 1980's. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960's, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036662108

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23235471

DOI: 10.3390/v4123689


Related references

Coronavirus isolates SK and SD from multiple sclerosis patients are serologically related to murine coronaviruses A59 and JHM and human coronavirus OC43, but not to human coronavirus 229E. Journal of Virology 38(1): 231-238, 1981

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Journal of Virology 90(6): 3253-3256, 2015

Antigenic studies on coronavirus 1. identification of the structural antigens of human coronavirus strain 229e. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27(3): 334-342, 1981

Antigenic studies on coronavirus. I. Identification of the structural antigens of human coronavirus, strain 229E. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27(3): 334-342, 1981

Characteristics of Australian human enteric coronavirus-like particles: comparison with human respiratory coronavirus 229E and duodenal brush border vesicles. Archives of Virology 97(3-4): 309-323, 1987

The ADP-ribose-1''-monophosphatase domains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E mediate resistance to antiviral interferon responses. Journal of General Virology 92(Pt 8): 1899-1905, 2011

Comparative host gene transcription by microarray analysis early after infection of the Huh7 cell line by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. Journal of Virology 79(10): 6180-6193, 2005

Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(9): 1377-1384, 2009

Characterization of human coronavirus 229E infection among patients with respiratory symptom in Beijing, Oct-Dec, 2007. Zhonghua Shi Yan he Lin Chuang Bing du Xue Za Zhi 23(5): 367-370, 2009

Comprehensive detection and identification of seven animal coronaviruses and human respiratory coronavirus 229E with a microarray hybridization assay. Intervirology 53(2): 95, 2010

Characterization of the human coronavirus 229E (HCV 229E) gene 1. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 342: 75-79, 1993

Identification and Characterization of a Human Coronavirus 229E Nonstructural Protein 8-Associated RNA 3'-Terminal Adenylyltransferase Activity. Journal of Virology 93(12):, 2019

ADP-ribose-1"-phosphatase activities of the human coronavirus 229E and SARS coronavirus X domains. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 581: 93-96, 2006

Evolutionary history of the closely related group 2 coronaviruses: porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, bovine coronavirus, and human coronavirus OC43. Journal of Virology 80(14): 7270-7274, 2006

Antigenic relationships among proteins of bovine coronavirus, human respiratory coronavirus OC43, and mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59. Journal of Virology 51(2): 384-388, 1984