+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Shoulder pain in swimmers: a 12-month prospective cohort study of incidence and risk factors

Shoulder pain in swimmers: a 12-month prospective cohort study of incidence and risk factors

Physical Therapy in Sport 13(4): 243-249

To investigate shoulder pain incidence rates and selected risk factors for shoulder pain in competitive swimmers. 12-month prospective cohort study. Five swimming clubs in Melbourne, Australia. 74 (37 M, 37 F) competitive swimmers ranging in age from 11 to 27 years and performing at least five swim sessions per week. Swimmers completed a baseline questionnaire regarding demographics, anthropometric features, swimming characteristics and training and injury history. Active shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion and passive joint laxity were measured. Shoulder pain was self-reported over 12 months with significant interfering shoulder pain (SIP) defined as pain interfering (causing cessation or modification) with training or competition, or progression in training. A significant shoulder injury (SSI) was any SIP episode lasting for at least 2 weeks. 28/74 (38%) participants reported SIP while 17/74 (23%) reported SSI. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates were 0.3 injuries and 0.2 injuries per 1000 swim km for SIP and SSI, respectively. Swimmers with both high and low ER range were at 8.1 (1.5, 42.0) and 12.5 (2.5, 62.4) times greater risk of sustaining a subsequent SIP, respectively and 35.4 (2.8, 441.4) and 32.5 (2.7, 389.6) times greater risk of sustaining a SSI, respectively than those with mid-range ER. Similarly swimmers with a history of shoulder pain were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 13.3) and 11.3 (95% CI: 2.6, 48. 4) times more likely to sustain a SIP and SSI, respectively. Shoulder pain is common in competitive swimmers. Preventative programs should be particularly directed at those swimmers identified as being at risk of shoulder pain.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036677408

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23068900

DOI: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2012.01.001

Related references

Incidence and association factors for the development of chronic post-hysterectomy pain at 4- and 6-month follow-up: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Pain Research 11: 629-636, 2018

Incidence and prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 137(3): 293-301, 2017

Incidence and risk factors of functional upper airway complications of primary esthetic closed rhinoplasty in two residency programs: A 6-month preliminary prospective cohort study. Dental Research Journal 10(1): 74-80, 2013

Poststroke shoulder pain: a prospective study of the association and risk factors in 152 patients from a consecutive cohort of 205 patients presenting with stroke. European Journal of Pain 6(6): 467-474, 2002

Incidence and risk factors for chronic pain after elective caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia in a Chinese cohort: a prospective study. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia 34: 21-27, 2018

Risk factors associated with shoulder pain and disability across the lifespan of competitive swimmers. Journal of Athletic Training 47(2): 149-158, 2013

Influence of psychological factors on the prognosis of chronic shoulder pain: protocol for a prospective cohort study. Bmj Open 7(3): E012822, 2017

Risk factors for shoulder pain and injury in swimmers: A critical systematic review. Physician and Sportsmedicine 43(4): 412-420, 2015

Shoulder pain, prognostic factors for the outcome of physiotherapy treatment. Results from a prospective multicentre cohort study. Manual Therapy 25: E53-E54, 2016

Current management and prognostic factors in physiotherapy practice for patients with shoulder pain: design of a prospective cohort study. Bmc Musculoskeletal Disorders 14: 62, 2013

Mechanical and psychosocial factors predict new onset shoulder pain: a prospective cohort study of newly employed workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60(11): 850-857, 2003

Incidence and risk factors of neck discomfort: a 6-month sedentary-worker cohort study. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 17(2): 171-179, 2007

Social class, risk factors, and stroke incidence in men and women: a prospective study in the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk cohort. Stroke 40(4): 1070-1077, 2009

Risk factors for nosocomial infections in a critically ill pediatric population: a 25-month prospective cohort study. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 21(5): 340-342, 2000

Incidence of shoulder pain after neck dissection: a clinical explorative study for risk factors. Head and Neck 23(11): 947-953, 2001