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Risk factors and incidence of acute pyogenic cholangitis

Risk factors and incidence of acute pyogenic cholangitis

Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International 11(6): 650-654

Acute cholangitis varies from mild to severe form. Acute suppurative cholangitis (ASC), the severe form of acute cholangitis, is a fatal disease and requires urgent biliary decompression. Which patients are at a high risk of ASC and need emergency drainage is still unclear. The present study aimed to identify the factors for determining early-stage ASC and distinguishing ASC from acute cholangitis. We analyzed 359 consecutive patients with acute cholangitis who had been admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2004 to May 201Emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was carried out in all patients to decompress or clear the stones by experienced endoscopists. Clinical and therapeutic data were collected, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the potential risk factors of ASC. Of the 359 patients, 1 was excluded because of failure of ERCP drainage. Of the remaining 358 patients with an average age of 62.7 years (range 17-90), 162 were diagnosed with ASC, and 196 with non-ASC. ENBD catheters were placed in 343 patients (95.8%), of whom 182 patients had stones removed at the same time, and plastic stent was placed in 25 patients (7.0%). Clinical conditions were improved quickly after emergency biliary drainage in all patients. Complications were identified in 11 patients (3.1%): mild pancreatitis occurred in 8 patients and hemorrhage in 3 patients. There was no mortality. Univariate analysis showed that several variables were associated with ASC: age, fever, decreased urine output, hypotension, tachycardia, abnormal white blood cell count (WBC), low platelet, high C reactive protein (CRP), and duration of the disease. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, hypotension, abnormal WBC, high CRP, and duration of the disease were independent risk factors for ASC. This study demonstrates that advanced age, hypotension, abnormal WBC, high CRP, and long duration of antibiotic therapy are significantly associated with ASC. We recommend decompression by ERCP should be carried out in patients as early as possible.

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Accession: 036684598

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DOI: 10.1016/S1499-3872(12)60240-9

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