Section 37
Chapter 36,722

Effects of diet and/or low-intensity resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness, adiposity, and lean mass in obese postmenopausal women

Figueroa, A.; Vicil, F.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Wong, A.; Ormsbee, M.J.; Hooshmand, S.; Daggy, B.

American Journal of Hypertension 26(3): 416-423


ISSN/ISBN: 1941-7225
PMID: 23382493
DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hps050
Accession: 036721504

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Obesity and aging are associated with increased arterial stiffness as indicated by an increased pulse-wave velocity (PWV). We evaluated the independent and combined effects on PWV and body composition of a hypocaloric diet and low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) with slow movement. Forty-one postmenopausal women (mean age, 54±6 years; body mass index (BMI), 33.8±0.5kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to LIRET (n = 14), diet (n = 13), or diet + LIRET (n = 14) for 12 weeks. The women's PWV, mean arterial pressure (MAP), body composition by dual-en ergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and plasma adipokine and insulin levels were measured before and after the interventions. Body weight (P = 0.0001), trunk-fat mass (FM, P = 0.0001), and the serum concentration of leptin (P = 0.02 and P = 0.004) decreased similarly with diet and diet + LIRET, but not with LIRET alone. Leg lean mass (LM) decreased (P = 0.02) with diet, but did not change with diet + LIRET or with LIRET alone. Leg muscle strength increased similarly with LIRET (P = 0.001) and diet + LIRET (P = 0.0001), but did not change with diet alone. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) decreased with diet (P = 0.04) and diet + LIRET (P = 0.01), whereas femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV) decreased only with diet (P = 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased after LIRET (P = 0.03), diet (P = 0.04), and diet + LIRET (P = 0.004). Carotid-femoral PWV, serum adiponectin concentration, and insulin were not significantly affected by the interventions examined in the study. The reductions in baPWV and legPWV were correlated with one another (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001), and the reductions in legPWV and trunk FM were also correlated with one another (r = 0.36, P = 0.03). A hypocaloric diet decreases baPWV mainly by reducing legPWV, and this reduction is related to the loss of truncal fat. Although LIRET alone does not affect PWV or body composition, LIRET combined with diet improves baPWV and muscle strength while preventing loss of lean body mass in obese postmenopausal women.

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