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Clinical profile of aortoiliac occlusive disease and outcomes of aortobifemoral bypass in India

Clinical profile of aortoiliac occlusive disease and outcomes of aortobifemoral bypass in India

Journal of Vascular Surgery 57(2 Suppl): 20s

Aortoiliac arterial occlusive (AIOD) disease is common in India. The clinical presentation and etiology are different than in the West. Intervention is frequently required for advanced lower extremity ischemia, but the results have not been systemically evaluated. We studied the clinical profile and midterm results of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD at a tertiary care center in south India. Clinical data of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD over a 6-year period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical presentation and factors affecting outcome were evaluated. Graft patency and mortality were included as study end points. Ninety-nine patients (mean age, 52 years) with AIOD who underwent aortobifemoral bypass were included. Etiology included atherosclerosis in 79 patients, thromboangiitis obliterans in 15, Takayasu's arteritis in two, and hematological conditions in 3. Smoking (82%), hypertension (40%), and diabetes (30%) were the most common risk factors; ischemic heart disease (4%), obesity (2%), and dyslipidemia (3%) were rare. Eighty-one percent of patients presented with critical limb ischemia. Mean duration of symptoms was 22 months (range, 4 months to 9 years). Concomitant infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease was identified in 81%, but intervened upon in only 2%. In-hospital mortality was 3%. Causes of death included myocardial infarction in two and colon ischemia in one. Major morbidity included nonfatal myocardial infarction (3%), pneumonia/atelectasis (5%), and renal dysfunction (2%). Groin wound complications occurred in 20%, seroma/lymph leak in 13%, infection in 7%, and anastomotic hemorrhage in 2%. Multidrug-resistant and polymicrobial infections were common. Early graft thrombosis (30 days) occurred in 15 patients; 8 of 11 reintervened grafts were salvaged. Four more grafts thrombosed during a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 0-5 years) and two became infected. Overall study major limb loss rate was 10% (primary, 2%; secondary, 8%). Delayed presentation and smoking were more common in patients developing complications. There was no significant difference in overall complication rates between patients with thromboangiitis obliterans and atherosclerosis (P = .66). Despite earlier age at presentation, atherosclerosis remains the predominant etiology of aortoiliac arterial occlusive disease in Indian patients. Results of open revascularization are comparable to those in the Western literature. Thromboangiitis obliterans is the underlying pathology in a minority of patients with no significant difference in operative outcome. Patients frequently present late with critical limb ischemia, but this does not affect outcome.

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Accession: 036734276

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PMID: 23336851

DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2012.06.113

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