+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

European Integration and Spatial Rescaling in the Baltic Region Soft Spaces, Soft Planning and Soft Security

European Integration and Spatial Rescaling in the Baltic Region Soft Spaces, Soft Planning and Soft Security

European Planning Studies 22(4): 680-693

Spatial rescaling arguably represents one of the most significant recent changes in planning. Rescaling processes do not merely imply changes in powers across existing layers of decision-making, but also entail new scales of intervention, new actor constellations and new geometries of governance. A wide range of examples of spatial rescaling can be seen across Europe, varying from local through to regional and international. The emergence of soft spaces regions in which strategy is made between or alongside formal institutions and processes is one of the phenomena associated with contemporary spatial rescaling. These spaces are often overlapping and characterized by fuzzy geographical boundaries. The formation of soft spaces is often articulated in terms of breaking away from the rigidities associated with the practices and expectations of working within existing political or administrative boundaries but can also be viewed as providing a means of bypassing formal procedures and reducing democratic accountability. Focusing on European territorial cooperation and development strategies in the Baltic region, this paper discusses how they are contributing to spatial rescaling in soft spaces and how the strategies can be seen as a form of soft planning and as a means to promote soft security policy (which could be considered as a wider form of foreign policy).

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036840652

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2013.772731

Related references

When soft spaces harden: the EU strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. Environment and Planning A 44(2): 263-280, 2012

Soft spaces as vehicles for neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning?. Environment and Planning C 30(5): 910-923, 2012

The New Spatial Planning Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries. Planning Theory & Practice 11(4): 628-630, 2010

Soft Spaces, Fuzzy Boundaries, and Metagovernance: The New Spatial Planning in the Thames Gateway. Environment and Planning A 41(3): 617-633, 2009

Verbessert das Licht des Soft-Lasers bzw. des kombinierten Soft- und Middlepower-Lasers die Wundheilung bei Ratten? Weitergehende Untersuchungen - Does the Light from Soft Lasers or Combined Soft and Middle-Power Lasers Improve Wound Healing in Rats? - Further Studies. Biomedical Engineering/ Biomedizinische Technik 35(7-8): 154-157, 1990

Rapid regional outburst elimination technology in soft coal seam with soft roof and soft floor. Safety Science 50(4): 607-613, 2012

Soft stools, soft bones and soft evidence? What inflammatory bowel disease patients think of osteoporosis medication. Gut 52(Suppl. 1): A70, 2003

Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups. Thescientificworldjournal 2014: 467968, 2015

Soft-x-ray-excited soft-x-ray appearance-potential spectra of Sm and SmB6 in the Sm 3d electron excitation region. Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 45(22): 12711-12715, 1992

Characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from soft and semi-soft cheeses sampled in a region of Italy. Veterinaria Italiana 47(1): 15-23, 5-13, 2011

Spectroscopic Imaging of Soft-Soft and Hard-Soft Interfaces. Microscopy and Microanalysis 18(S2): 1598-1599, 2012

Histologic evaluation of soft tissue integration of experimental abutments for bone anchored hearing implants using surgery without soft tissue reduction. Otology and Neurotology 33(8): 1445-1451, 2013

What is your diagnosis? An ill-defined soft-tissue opacity in the caudal abdominal region and numerous metallic opacities in the soft tissues of the lumbar area. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220(2): 169-170, 2002

Ecological studies on the soft rot bacteria of vegetables. 14. effect of plant age on the multiplication of the soft rot bacteria and its relation to the soft rot disease development among Chinese cabbage cultivars in the field. Hokoku 27 (2) 103-112, 1976

Ecological studies on the soft rot bacteria of vegetables part 14 effect of plant age on the multiplication of the soft rot bacteria and its relation to the soft rot disease development among chinese cabbage cultivars in the field. Bulletin of the Institute for Agricultural Research Tohoku University 27(2): 103-112, 1976