+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans



Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans



Amino Acids 45(2): 231-240



Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover. After protein ingestion, hyperaminoacidemia stimulates increased rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis, suppresses muscle protein breakdown, and promotes net muscle protein accretion for several hours. These acute observations form the basis for strategized protein intake to promote lean mass accretion, or prevent lean mass loss over the long term. However, factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are important in mediating the anabolic effects of amino acids on skeletal muscle and must be considered within the context of evaluating the reported efficacy of long-term studies investigating protein supplementation as part of a dietary strategy to promote lean mass accretion and/or prevent lean mass loss. Current research suggests that dietary protein supplementation can augment resistance exercise-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength and can preserve skeletal muscle mass during periods of diet-induced energy restriction. Perhaps less appreciated, protein supplementation can augment resistance training-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass even in individuals habitually consuming 'adequate' (i.e., >0.8 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) protein. Additionally, overfeeding energy with moderate to high-protein intake (15-25 % protein or 1.8-3.0 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) is associated with lean, but not fat mass accretion, when compared to overfeeding energy with low protein intake (5 % protein or ~0.68 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). Amino acids represent primary nutrient regulators of skeletal muscle anabolism, capable of enhancing lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating the loss of lean mass during periods of energy deficit, although factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are likely important in mediating these effects.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036879110

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23645387

DOI: 10.1007/s00726-013-1506-0


Related references

Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103(3): 738-746, 2016

Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content. Frontiers in Physiology 8: 483, 2017

The effectiveness of leucine on muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and leg lean mass accretion in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition 113(1): 25-34, 2015

Reference Values of Total Lean Mass, Appendicular Lean Mass, and Fat Mass Measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in a Healthy Mexican Population. Calcified Tissue International 99(5): 462-471, 2016

Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 141(9): 1626-1634, 2011

Effect of a Hypocaloric Diet, Increased Protein Intake and Resistance Training on Lean Mass Gains and Fat Mass Loss in Overweight Police Officers. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 44(1): 21-29, 2000

Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 44(1): 21-29, 2000

Effect of dietary protein on lean body wasting in dogs: correlation between loss of lean mass and markers of proteasome-dependent proteolysis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87(11-12): 408-420, 2003

Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86(2): 373-381, 2007

Resistance training and timed essential amino acids protect against the loss of muscle mass and strength during 28 days of bed rest and energy deficit. Journal of Applied Physiology 105(1): 241-248, 2008

Association between insulin resistance and lean mass loss and fat mass gain in older men without diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59(7): 1217-1224, 2011

Post exercise metabolism in lean and nonlean males of matched lean mass. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 24(5 Suppl.): S52, 1992

Thermic effects of food and exercise in lean and obese men of similar lean body mass. American Journal of Physiology 252(1 Pt 1): E110-E117, 1987

Energy expenditure and caloric balance after burn: increased feeding leads to fat rather than lean mass accretion. Annals of Surgery 235(1): 152-161, 2002

Lean Soft Tissue Mass Measured Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Is an Effective Index for Assessing Change in Leg Skeletal Muscle Mass Following Exercise Training. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 21(3): 394-398, 2018