Cross-facial nerve graft and masseteric nerve cooptation for one-stage facial reanimation: principles, indications, and surgical procedure
Bianchi, B.; Ferri, A.; Ferrari, S.; Copelli, C.; Magri, A.; Ferri, T.; Sesenna, E.
Head and Neck 36(2): 235-240
The use of facial cross-grafting in acquired recent unilateral facial palsy provides spontaneity and emotional activation. Masseteric nerve for facial animation has mainly been described for reinnervation of neuromuscular transplants, babysitter procedures, or direct facial nerve cooptation. The simultaneous use in a single procedure of cross-facial nerve grafting and masseteric cooptation has not been described. Eight patients underwent facial animation using single stage cross-facial nerve grafting and masseteric nerve cooptation. The mean duration of facial palsy was 10.2 months (range, 1-23 months). Voluntary contraction in response to masseteric nerve activation was observed after 2 to 4 months. All patients underwent postoperative rehabilitation and spontaneous contraction was achieved in 7 to 13 months postoperatively. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated as moderate in 1 patient, good in 5 patients, and excellent in the remaining 2 patients. This new technique could provide good results with fast, reliable, and powerful reinnervation, spontaneity, and low morbidity.