+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The pore-forming haemolysins of bacillus cereus: a review

The pore-forming haemolysins of bacillus cereus: a review

Toxins 5(6): 1119-1139

The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O), haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK). Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 036925846

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23748204

DOI: 10.3390/toxins5061119

Related references

Bacillus cereus Nhe is a pore-forming toxin with structural and functional properties similar to the ClyA (HlyE, SheA) family of haemolysins, able to induce osmotic lysis in epithelia. Microbiology 154(Pt 3): 693-704, 2008

Bacillus cereus pore-forming toxins hemolysin II and cytotoxin K: polymorphism and distribution of genes among representatives of the cereus group. Mikrobiologiia 76(4): 462-470, 2007

Pore-forming properties of Bacillus cereus hemolysin II: Experiments. 2006

Enterotoxin K of Bacillus cereus A new member of the family of beta-barrel pore-forming toxins?. Medical Microbiology & Immunology 189(1): 42, 2000

Crystal structure of Bacillus cereus HlyIIR, a transcriptional regulator of the gene for pore-forming toxin hemolysin II. Journal of Molecular Biology 365(3): 825-834, 2007

Trypan blue dye enters viable cells incubated with the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus. Plos one 6(9): E22876, 2011

Formation of very large conductance channels by Bacillus cereus Nhe in Vero and GH(4) cells identifies NheA + B as the inherent pore-forming structure. Journal of Membrane Biology 237(1): 1-11, 2010

Haemolysin of Escherichia coli: comparison of pore-forming properties between chromosome and plasmid-encoded haemolysins. Fems Microbiology Immunology 5(1-3): 55-62, 1992

Dependence of the lethal effect of pore-forming haemolysins of Gram-positive bacteria on cytolytic activity. Journal of Medical Microbiology 55(Pt 5): 505-510, 2006

Bacteriophages of Bacillus cereus and of crystal-forming insect pathogens related to B. cereus. Journal of General Microbiology 26: 167-173, 1961

Mesophilic bacilli in raw milk bacillus cereus bacillus brevis bacillus subtilis bacillus megaterium bacillus cereus var mycoides. Bulletin of the National Institute of Animal Industry (Chiba) (17): 21-27, 1968

Nosocomial bacteremia caused by biofilm-forming Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Internal Medicine 48(10): 791-796, 2009

The Relation of Bacillus siamensis and Similar Pathogenic Spore-forming Bacteria to Bacillus cereus. Journal of Bacteriology 33(4): 435-443, 1937

Importance of polarity of the α4-α5 loop residue-Asn(166) in the pore-forming domain of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin: implications for ion permeation and pore opening. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1838(1 Pt B): 319-327, 2014