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The Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Parkinsona s Disease Focus on Astrocytes

The Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Parkinsona s Disease Focus on Astrocytes

Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson s disease (PD). Epidemiologic, animal, human, and therapeutic studies support the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade in initiation and progression of PD. In Parkinson s disease pathophysiology, activated glia affects neuronal injury and death through production of neurotoxic factors like glutamate, S100B, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ), prostaglandins, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. As disease progresses, inflammatory secretions engage neighboring cells, including astrocytes and endothelial cells, resulting in a vicious cycle of autocrine and paracrine amplification of inflammation leading to neurodegeneration. The exact mechanism of these inflammatory mediators in the disease progression is still poorly understood. In this review, we highlight and discuss the mechanisms of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators by which they contribute to the disease progression. Particularly, we focus on the altered role of astroglial cells that presumably initiate and execute dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. In conclusion, we focus on the molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration, which contributes to the basic understanding of the role of neuroinflammation in PD pathophysiology.

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