+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Lunar radiation environment and space weathering from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation CRaTER



Lunar radiation environment and space weathering from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation CRaTER



Journal of Geophysical Research 117.E



The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) measures linear energy transfer by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission in a circular, polar lunar orbit. GCR fluxes remain at the highest levels ever observed during the space age. One of the largest SEP events observed by CRaTER during the LRO mission occurred on June 7, 2011. We compare model predictions by the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM) for both dose rates from GCRs and SEPs during this event with results from CRaTER. We find agreement between these models and the CRaTER dose rates, which together demonstrate the accuracy of EMMREM, and its suitability for a real-time space weather system. We utilize CRaTER to test forecasts made by the Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration (REleASE), which successfully predicts the June 7th event. At the maximum CRaTER-observed GCR dose rate ( approximately 11.7 cGy/yr where Gy is a unit indicating energy deposition per unit mass, 1 Gy = 1 J/kg), GCRs deposit approximately 88 eV/molecule in water over 4 billion years, causing significant change in molecular composition and physical structure (e.g., density, color, crystallinity) of water ice, loss of molecular hydrogen, and production of more complex molecules linking carbon and other elements in the irradiated ice. This shows that space weathering by GCRs may be extremely important for chemical evolution of ice on the Moon. Thus, we show comprehensive observations from the CRaTER instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter that characterizes the radiation environment and space weathering on the Moon.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 037096394

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1029/2011je003978


Related references

CRaTER The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission. 2010

An overview of results form the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation CRaTER. LPI Contribution: 66, 2010

Lunar cosmic ray albedo measurements using the cosmic ray telescope for the effects of radiation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 41: Paper 2659, 2010

Lunar space weathering via exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74.12, Suppl. 1: A543, 2010

Radiation environment induced by cosmic ray particle fluxes in the International Space Station orbit according to recent galactic and solar cosmic ray models. Advances in Space Research 21(12): 1689-1698, 2001

The Radiation Environment Near the Lunar Surface CRaTER Observations and Geant4 Simulations. Space Weather 11(4): 142-152, 2013

The radiation environment on the Moon from galactic cosmic rays in a lunar habitat. Radiation Research 173(2): 238-244, 2010

Incremental laser space weathering of Allende reveals non-lunar like space weathering effects. Icarus 286: 1-14, 2017

Cosmic radiation and space exploration. 2. Problems of radiation biology. Revue des Corps de Sante des Armees Terre, Mer, Air 8(4): 529-544, 1967

Solar cosmic radiation and the radiation hazard of space flight. Kosmicheskaia Biologiia i Aviakosmicheskaia Meditsina 17(3): 8-13, 1983

Lunar cosmic ray radiation environments during Luna and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. Advances in Space Research 54(6): 1113-1118, 2014

Cytogenetic analysis in human lymphocytes after exposure to simulated cosmic radiation which reflects the inflight radiation environment. International Journal of Radiation Biology 75(6): 691-698, 2001

Analysis of radiation dose increases caused by solar cosmic ray events observed by the radiation monitoring system on the Russian segment of the International Space Station. Advances in Space Research 36(9): 1749-1752, 2005

Space related radiation and the lens The relative effects of the low- and high-LET components of cosmic rays. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 38(4 PART 1-2): S1018, 1997

Space plasma ion processing of the lunar soil; modeling of radiation-damaged rim widths on lunar grains. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 39, 2008