+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Distance from riparian edge reduces brood parasitism of southwestern willow flycatchers, whereas parasitism increases nest predation risk

Distance from riparian edge reduces brood parasitism of southwestern willow flycatchers, whereas parasitism increases nest predation risk

Journal of Wildlife Management 76(2): 269-272

The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is a federally endangered subspecies that breeds in increasingly fragmented and threatened habitat. We examined whether temporal and habitat characteristics were associated with risk of predation and probability of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on flycatcher nests at 6 sites in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona, USA. For nest predation, we found the most support for a model that included date and an interaction between parasitism status and nesting stage. Daily nest survival decreased from 0.87 (95% CI?=?0.81 long dash 0.93) to 0.78 (95% CI=0.72 long dash 0.84) through the season for parasitized nests but remained relatively constant for unparasitized nests (0.93, 95% CI=0.91 long dash 0.95 to 0.92, 95% CI=?0.91 long dash 93). Parasitized nests had lower survival than non-parasitized nests during the incubation (0.85, 95% CI=0.84 long dash 0.86 vs. 0.92, CI=0.91 long dash 0.93) and nestling (0.79, 95% CI=0.77 long dash 0.81 vs. 0.91, 95% CI=0.90 long dash 0.92) stages. Of the variables included in our parasitism candidate models, model-averaged coefficients and odds ratios supported only distance to habitat edge; odds of parasitism decreased 1% for every 1m from the habitat edge. Nests greater than 100m from an edge were 50% less likely to be parasitized as those on an edge, however, only 52 of 233 nests (22%) were found at this distance. Where management and conservation goals include reducing nest losses due to parasitism, we recommend restoration of habitat patches that minimize edge and maximize breeding habitat further from edges. At sites where cowbirds have been documented as important nest predators, controlling cowbirds may be one option, but further study of the link between parasitism and nest predation and the identification of major nest predators at specific sites is warranted.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 037412190

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.246

Related references

Distance From Riparian Edge Reduces Brood Parasitism of Southwestern Willow Flycatchers, Whereas Parasitism Increases Nest Predation Risk. The Journal of Wildlife Management 76(2): 269-277, 2012

Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: Factors influencing brood parasitism. Auk 124(4): 1213-1228, 2007

Nest predation and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism: from risk spreading to risk assessment. American Naturalist 169(1): 94-104, 2007

Experimental enlargement of nest size does not increase risk of predation or brood parasitism in the Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Ibis 157(2): 396-400, 2015

Association of cowbird parasitism and vegetative cover in territories of southwestern willow flycatchers. Unknown, 2000

Are nest predation and brood parasitism correlated in Yellow Warblers? A test of the cowbird predation hypothesis. The Auk 117(4): 56-60, 2000

Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a Grazed Landscape: Factors Influencing Brood Parasitism (Empidonax traillii extimus en un Paisaje con Pastoreo: Factores que Influyen sobre el Parasitismo de la Nidada). The Auk 124(4): 1213-1228, 2007

Nest predation and brood parasitism of tallgrass prairie birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 54(1): 106-111, 1990

Modelling nest predation and brood parasitism Implications for environmental management. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77(3 SUPPL PART 2): 477, 1996

Experimental support for the role of nest predation in the evolution of brood parasitism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(6): 1354-1358, 2009

Site fidelity in habitats with contrasting levels of nest predation and brood parasitism. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3(6): 633-648, 2001

The relative impacts of nest predation and brood parasitism on seasonal fecundity in songbirds. Conservation Biology 13(1): 57, 1999

Tests of landscape influence: nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems. Ecology 87(3): 759-768, 2006

Effects of experimental cowbird removals on brood parasitism and nest predation in a grassland songbird. Auk 125(4): 820-830, 2008

Effects of forest fragmentation on brood parasitism and nest predation in eastern and western landscapes. Studies in Avian Biology 25: 73-80, 2002