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Late Holocene Chronology And Geomorphic Development Of Fluviala Tidal Floodplains In The Upper Reaches Of The Lower Columbia River Valley, Washington and Oregon, USA



Late Holocene Chronology And Geomorphic Development Of Fluviala Tidal Floodplains In The Upper Reaches Of The Lower Columbia River Valley, Washington and Oregon, USA







The upper reaches of the lower Columbia River Valley (125km in length) comprise an alluvial system that is transitional between fluvial and fluvial-tidal dominance. Sinuous channels separate elongate islands (1a 8km in length) and floodplains (0.5a 12.7km in total width). Thirty-six floodplain overbank deposits are analyzed for age and depth, which demonstrate an average sedimentation rate of 1.6mka-1 during the last 5a 6ka. Older core records confirm that long-term depositional rates are controlled by relative sea level rise. Rising floodplain groundwater surfaces, which followed relative sea level rise (~ 1.25mka-1), submerged isolated floodplain depressions. Low sedimentation rates in the isolated depressions (0.6a 1.1mka-1) maintained large ellipsoidal bullseye lakes (7a 22km2 in area) dating back to 3.5a 4.0ka. Increases in the widths of the floodplains and bullseye lakes are associated with broadening of the incised valley (4a 13km width) in the Portland Basin. Dated basal overbank deposits (0.5a 5.0ka in age) and their separation distances establish channel migration rates of 0.3a 1.9kmka-1. Shallow burial rates relative to rapid channel migration rates resulted in reworking of late Holocene floodplains (50a 75 % erosion) since 5ka in the upper reaches of the lower Columbia River Valley.

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