Distribution and situation of the green toad Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Slovakia Zur Verbreitung and Situation der Wechselkroete Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in der Slowakei

Belansky, P.

Mertensiella 30 Juni; 14: 153-163

2003


Accession: 038153893

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Abstract
Up to the present time no state-wide square-mapping was done on the distribution of the green toad in Slovakia. This article shortly resumes the contemporary knowledge on the distribution and situation of the green toad in Slovakia by virtue of published as well as non-published data. According to the obtained data, the green toad is probably spread on suitable habitats in the whole area of Slovakia. Vertically this species was registered within the altitude from 96 m up to 1400 m above the see level. More than 80 % of the records are below 600 m above sea level. The green toad lives in open landscape of steppe, forest-steppe, including agricultural landscape, villages and towns. Coherent forest-areas are inhabited by the green toad only very exceptionally. Among the autochthonous fauna of amphibians the green toad is the most resistant species to dryness and occurs relatively numerous in so dry or anthropogenicly changed habitats, where the other amphibian species could not survive. Although the green toad is known as a species with low reproduction place fidelity, there were registered cases of a summer habitat place fidelity of Bufo riridis. The green toad is endangered and protected by law in Slovakia. The species is endangered, besides other things, e. g. by more intensive landuse in towns and villages, by more intensive traffic (especially in towns) in the last years, filling up of many small wetlands and small water bodies, and by other destructive human activities affecting the reproduction localities. Important decrease of suitable habitats, including reproduction localities is caused by the succession of vegetation. Various chemical factors (e. g. biocides, fertilizers, acid rain) can also play an important role as risk factors for the green toad. For sustainability of the green toad populations, it is important, as well as in the case of the other amphibian species, to save or to renew the state-wide population integrity by conserving and creating reproduction localities and an adequate mosaic of summer and winter habitats, as well as by implementation of adequate regulations for safe and suitable migration conditions in the landscape.