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Evolutionary dynamic of Digenea communities in Anguilla anguilla from the north Tunisian lagoons Dynamique evolutive des communautes des digenes parasites de Anguilla anguilla dans les Lagunes du nord-est de la Tunisie



Evolutionary dynamic of Digenea communities in Anguilla anguilla from the north Tunisian lagoons Dynamique evolutive des communautes des digenes parasites de Anguilla anguilla dans les Lagunes du nord-est de la Tunisie



Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 1301: 95-106



The endoparasitic trematode communities of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, were studied in four lagoons of northeast Tunisia (Ichkeul, Bizerte, Ghar El Meth and Tunis). Five species of Digenea (Deropristis inflata, Prosorhynchus aculeatus, Bucephalus anguillae, Lasiotocus longicystis and Lecithochirium gravidum) were found. The distribution of these species differs in the host's alimentary tract. Lecithochirium gravidum essentially occupies the anterior part of the alimentary tract (oesophagus and stomach). D. inflata colonises the three parts of the intestine, B. anguillae generally limits itself to the anterior and middle part of the intestine, L. longicystis occupies the middle intestine and P. aculeatus is localised in the middle and posterior intestine. These different distributions may be the result of interspecific competition that drove, during evolution, to the selection of new characters which restricted them to different niches and limited interactions. Eels are known to shelter a small number of parasite species whose density is generally low. Among the collected species, D. inflata and B. anguillae, the most frequent, are present throughout the year. The other, rarer species, are only met during the course of one or two seasons. Accordingly, we are limited to a survey of the population dynamics of the Acanthocolpidae and Bucephalidae. The survey of the parasites at the different localities shows that the two species are present in the four prospected lagoons; however, B. anguillae is more frequent in the lake of Tunis, while D. inflata mainly infects eels of the Ichkeul and, to a lesser extent, those of Tunis. The seasonal fluctuations in level of parasitism show that B. anguillae is most prevalent and abundant in autumn. Prevalences of D. inflata are variable and the maximum can be found in winter and spring. The epidemiological levels at the different sampling localities vary in relation to the impact of environmental conditions (temperature, salinity) on the different life cycle stages of the parasite and, in particular, on the maturity of sporocyst or redia and the emergence of cercaria. Another cause of variation is the availability of the first and second intermediate host necessary for development. The seasonal fluctuations observed in parasitic populations may be related to variation in the eel feeding period, the average lifespan of the adult parasite, the period of cercaria emergence and the length of the postlarval development.

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Accession: 038224307

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