Gall midge fauna Cecidomyiidae, Diptera of South Tyrol Contribution to the fauna of Italy Die Gallmueckenfauna Cecidomyiidae, Diptera Suedtirols ein Beitrag zur Gallmueckenfauna Italiens

Skuhrava, M.; Skuhravy, V.; Hellrigl, K.

Gredleriana 1: 83-132


Accession: 038270384

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In 1999, during an expedition in South Tyrol, 118 gall midge species were found at 13 localities situated in altitudes from 240 m a.s.l. at Montiggler See up to 1900 m a.s.l. in mountains over the Karerpass. The present fauna of South Tyrol includes 145 species; 43 of them are new records for Italy. Of these new records, 36 species were found by the authors and 7 species, recorded by DALLA TORRE (1892, 1894, 1896) as "Dipterocecidia", were recently determined to the species level: Dasineura berberidis, D. bistortae, D. comosae, D. polygalae, D. thomasi, D. vitisidaea and Hygrodiplosis vaccinii. In addition, 10 species found by earlier authors in South Tyrol, in Northern Italy, which were omitted, must be included in the Italian Checklist (SKUHRAVA 1995): Cecidomyia pini, Contarinia baeri, Dasineura fraxinea, D. kellneri, Kaltenbachiola strobi, Planetella producta, Rabdophaga degeerii, Rabdophaga iteobia, Rhopalomyia luetkemuelleri and R. ruebsaameni. The present gall midge fauna of Italy includes 380 species. An annotated list of species found in South Tyrol is given. For each species, collection sites together with biological and zoogeographical data are given. New records for Italy are indicated by two asterisks (*) before the species name, for South Tyrol with one asterisk (). A list of host plant species attacked by gall midge species is given. Gall midges are associated with 120 host plant species, of which about half are trees and shrubs. The gall midge fauna is evaluated from the point of view of zoogeography and economic importance. At individual localities, from 8 to 29 species were found. The average species number per locality (15 species) is relatively high. The number of gall midge species decreases with increasing altitude. Horizontal distribution: 60% of species are European, 30% Euro-siberian, 6% Mediterranean and Submediterranean and 4% secondarily Holarctic species. The zoogeographic interesting species: Dasineura berberidis is the European species occurring mainly in mountain parts of Europe; Asphondylia coronillae is the only Mediterranean species reaching as far as South Tyrol the northern boundary of its distribution area; Wachtliella ericina is the Mediterranean-Submediterranean and Atlantic species; Rabdophaga iteobia is the boreomontane species. Oligotrophus juniperinus and Wachtliella rosarum are species with large ecological potency. Rhopalomyia luetkemuelleri, R. ruebsaameni, Jaapiella alpina, Dasineura phyteumatis, D. thomasi and D. polygalae are alpine species. Galls of Rhopalomyia luetkemuelleri on Artemisia spicata, Jaapiella alpina on Silene acaulis and larvae of Cecidomyia pini on Pinus cembra were found in the subnivale zone at an altitude of 2700 m a.s.l. The economical importance was analysed: 19 species belong to potential pests, eight of them of forestry and 11 of agriculture