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Study of cromatic polymorphism in dark Laparus doris and identification of phenotypic frequencies by intraspecific crossing of three populations of the Valle and Caldas departments - Colombia Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Heliconinae Estudio del polimorfismo cromatico en Laparus doris obscurus y determinacion de la frecuencia fenotipica mediante cruzamientos intraespecificos de tres poblaciones en el Departamento del Valle y Caldas - Colombia Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Heliconinae



Study of cromatic polymorphism in dark Laparus doris and identification of phenotypic frequencies by intraspecific crossing of three populations of the Valle and Caldas departments - Colombia Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Heliconinae Estudio del polimorfismo cromatico en Laparus doris obscurus y determinacion de la frecuencia fenotipica mediante cruzamientos intraespecificos de tres poblaciones en el Departamento del Valle y Caldas - Colombia Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Heliconinae



Boletin Cientifico Museo de Historia Natural Universidad de Caldas. Enero-Diciembre; 9: 222-237



The life cycle of the butterfly Laparus doris obscurus is described for the first time in Colombia. Also the chromatic polymorphism of three populations of L doris obscurus were studied under laboratory conditions in Colombia, proceeding from three regions geographically and attitudinally different from the department of Valle and Caldas, with the purpose was to obtain biological information and to understand the action mechanism that generates the chromatic variability that is given naturally in some polymorphic populations of this butterfly in the country. In order to determine the frequencies of the different phenotypes obtained from a same F1 brood, colonies of L. don's were established in breeding cages in the Cali zoo, Valle and in Cenicafe, Chinchilla, Caldas, obtained from wild-caught females from 3 localities (Lago Calima, bosque Municipal in Cali, Valle and Planalto in Chinchina, Caldas). The life cycle of the species were studied under laboratory conditions. The average duration of the egg stage was 4 days, the larval stage was 3.1, 3.3, 4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 days respectively for each instar, the stage of prepupa was 1 day and the pupal stage was 9 days, for a total life cycle of 33.9 days. The oviposition average was of 250-300 eggs placed in a gregarious way for each female in captivity. From the same broods of eggs, 6 different forms of adults were obtained independently of the sex (there was not sexual dimorphism among the different phenotypes obtained). For each population, series of adult individuals of generation F1 and F2 were obtainedunder laboratory conditions starting from a crossing of a blue male phenotype with yellow band and a blue female phenotype with yellow band, giving different frequencies in 6 different forms that were grouped according to their pattern of coloration and form: heterozygotes individuals that expressed the yellow band pattern on the fore wings (FW) and a ray pattern of blue, green or red color in the hind wings (HW), also homozygotes individuals that did not expressed the yellow band in the FW but expressed the ray pattern of blue, green or red color in the HW. For the locality at Calima the proportion of the frequencies of the generation F2 obtained for 72 individuals in laboratory was as follows: heterozygotes 29.1 blue, 23.6 green, and 1.3 red and homozygotes 27.7 blue, 16.6 green and 1.3 red. For the locality at Planalto, the proportion of the frequencies of the generation F2 obtained for 142 individuals in laboratory was as follows: heterozygotes 42.9 green, 18.3 blue, 3.5 red and 0.7 red-brick and homozygotes 17.6 green, 15.5 blue, and 1.4 red. For the locality at Cali, the proportion of the frequencies of the generation F2 obtained for 55 individuals in laboratory was as follows: heterocygotes 40.0 blue and 32.7 green and homocygotes 16.3 blue and 10.9 green, being Cali the only locality where the red form was not expressed. These differences in the frequency of expression in the red and blue form among both localities are explained respectively by the presence or absence of their comimetic models, Heliconius sara and H. clysonimus. There was not a comimetic model for the green form. The results of this study constitute the evidence that demonstrates for the first time that the chromatic polymorphism present in wild populations of L. doris obscurus is due to a genetic factor and it is not a product of a variation dueto climatic, environmental, altitudinale, seasonal, nutritional, sexual or geographical factors, nor a product of an interspecific hybridization as presumed by several authors, since the work was carried out with individuals coming from several localities corresponding to the same biogeographic race (obscurus) endemic to the geographic Cauca river valley. Such evidence also demonstrates that the 6 forms obtained in laboratory are indeed conspecific and form single interbreeding populations in the sites studied.

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Estudio del polimorfismo cromatico en Laparus doris obscurus y determinacion de la frecuencia fenotipica mediante cruzamientos intraespecificos de tres poblaciones en el Departamento del Valle y Caldas - Colombia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconinae). Boletin Cientifico Museo de Historia Natural Universidad de CaldasEnero-Diciembre; 9: 222-237, 2005

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