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Inhibitory effects of histidine and their reversal. The roles of pyruvate carboxylase and N10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase






Biochemical Journal 177(3): 833-846

Inhibitory effects of histidine and their reversal. The roles of pyruvate carboxylase and N10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase

1. N10-Formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from rat liver with a specific activity of 0.7--0.8 unit/mg at 25 degrees C. The enzyme is a tetramer (Mw = 413,000) composed of four similar, if not identical, substrate addition and give the Km values as 4.5 micron [(-)-N10-formyltetrahydrofolate] and 0.92 micron (NADP+) at pH 7.0. Tetrahydrofolate acts as a potent product inhibitor [Ki = 7 micron for the (-)-isomer] which is competitive with respect to N10-formyltetrahydrofolate and non-competitive with respect to NADP+. 3. Product inhibition by NADPH could not be demonstrated. This coenzyme activates N10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase when added at concentrations, and in a ratio with NADP+, consistent with those present in rat liver in vivo. No effect of methionine, ethionine or their S-adenosyl derivatives could be demonstrated on the activity of the enzyme. 4. Hydrolysis of N10-formyltetrahydrofolate is catalysed by rat liver N10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase at 21% of the rate of CO2 formation based on comparison of apparent Vmax. values. The Km for (-)-N10-folate is a non-competitive inhibitor of this reaction with respect to N10-formyltetrahydrofolate, with a mean Ki of 21.5 micron for the (-)-isomer. NAD+ increases the maximal rate of N10-formyltetrahydrofolate hydrolysis without affecting the Km for this substrate and decreases inhibition by tetrahydrofolate. The activator constant for NAD+ is obtained as 0.35 mM. 5. Formiminoglutamate, a product of liver histidine metabolism which accumulates in conditions of excess histidine load, is a potent inhibitor of rat liver pyruvate carboxylase, with 50% inhibition being observed at a concentration of 2.8 mM, but has no detectable effect on the activity of rat liver cytosol phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase measured in the direction of oxaloacetate synthesis. We propose that the observed inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase by formiminoglutamate may account in part for the toxic effect of excess histidine.

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Accession: 038950680

PMID: 36073



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