A case of familial lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency

Baba, Y.; Hamada, F.; Aozaki, S.; Hagihara, R.; Ohashi, T.; Yasumoto, Y.; Ohsaki, K.; Yamashita, W.; Harada, R.; Arima, T.

Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 34(3): 309-316


ISSN/ISBN: 0385-2385
PMID: 1630033
Accession: 039034128

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Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the esterifying reaction of cholesterol in plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL). Deficiency of LCAT is a rare hereditary disease characterized by several clinical symptoms such as proteinuria, corneal opacity, and anemia due to a shortened life span of erythrocytes. In this communication, we report a case of 40 year-old female patient of LCAT deficiency. She visited a hospital for work-up of proteinuria, corneal opacity and anemia. Activity of her serum LCAT was found to be extremely low, and characteristic changes in plasma lipids due to deficiency of LCAT was observed: those were marked decreases in HDL-cholesterol, degree of esterification in serum cholesterol, and apoprotein A-I, A-II, B and C-II levels. The diagnosis of LCAT deficiency was finally made. We studied about histopathological changes in the patient's kidney, and erythrocyte membrane lipid composition and fluidity. Histopathological findings in renal biopsy were follows: a) Light microscopy showed spherical deposits stained with periodic acid-Schiff in mesangial matrix and adjacent capillary loops, and hyaline deposits in arterioles, b) Electron microscopy showed vacuoles in mesangial matrix and along the glomerular basement membranes. In erythrocyte membrane lipids, increase of cholesterol to phospholipid molar ratio was evident, being accompanied by changes in phospholipid fractions: increase of phosphatidylcholine, and decreases of phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine. In phospholipid acyl chains, increase of C18:2 and decreased of C18:1 were evident in the patient. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was found to be decreased in the patient in a measurement by pyrene, probably being related to the changes in membrane lipid composition.