Adenine nucleotide-binding sites on mitochondrial F1-ATPase. Evidence for an adenylate kinase-like orientation of catalytic and noncatalytic sites
Vogel, P.D.; Cross, R.L.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 266(10): 6101-6105
Nucleotide-depleted mitochondrial F1-ATPase (F1[0,0]) is inhibited by the diadenosine oligophosphate compounds, AP4A, AP5A, and AP6A (where APxA stands for 5',5'-diadenosine oligophosphates having a chain of x phosphoryl groups linking the two adenosine moieties). When F1[0,0] is preincubated with these compounds and then assayed for ATP hydrolysis activity under conditions that normally allow turnover at all three catalytic sites, the maximal level of inhibition observed is 80%. However, when assayed at lower ATP concentrations under conditions that allow simultaneous turnover at only two of the three sites, no inhibition is observed. A decrease in the number of phosphoryl groups that links the adenosine moieties to less than 4 (AP3A, AP2A) converts the compound to an activator of ATP hydrolysis, similar in effect to that obtained when one mol of ADP or 2-azido-ADP binds at a catalytic site on F1[0,0]. Inhibition by the compounds requires the presence of at least one vacant noncatalytic site. Evidence is provided that the probes also interact with a catalytic site. The stoichiometry for maximal inhibition by AP4A is 0.94 mol/mol of F1. The data presented support a model for the structure of nucleotide-binding sites on F1 that places catalytic and noncatalytic sites in close proximity in an orientation analogous to the ATP and AMP binding sites on adenylate kinase. Inhibition of the enzyme by the dinucleotide compounds can be explained by the cross-bridging of one of the catalytic sites to a noncatalytic site in analogy to the inhibition of adenylate kinase by AP5A. The residual capacity for bi-site catalysis indicates that the second and third catalytic sites remain catalytically active.