Alteration of mortality and pathogenesis of three experimental Herpesvirus hominis infections of mice with adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate, adenine arabinoside, and phosphonoacetic acid
Kern, E.R.; Richards, J.T.; Overall, J.C.; Glasgow, L.A.
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 13(1): 53-60
ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804 PMID: 204250 DOI: 10.1128/aac.13.1.53
The therapeutic effectiveness of adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate (ara-AMP), adenine arabinoside (ara-A), and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) was compared in three experimental Herpesvirus hominis type 2 infections of mice. In animals inoculated with H. hominis by the intracerebral or intraperitoneal route, both ara-AMP and ara-A were highly effective in reducing mortality even when treatment was begun 48 to 96 h after viral inoculation. ara-AMP was the most effective in both models in that treatment could be initiated 24 to 48 h later in the course of infection than with ara-A and still confer significant protection. In mice inoculated intraperitoneally, protection due to ara-AMP therapy was associated with reduced replication of virus in visceral organs and complete inhibition of transmission of virus to the brain. PAA treatment of mice inoculated intraperitoneally was effective in reducing mortality only if initiated shortly after infection. Treatment with PAA did not reduce mortality of mice inoculated intracerebrally but did prolong the mean day of death. When mice were inoculated intranasally with H. hominis, none of the three drugs altered final mortality; however, treatment with ara-AMP did prolong the mean day of death. Treatment with ara-AMP effectively reduced viral replication in the lung and liver in this model infection, but failed to prevent transmission of virus through the trigeminal nerves from the nasopharynx to the brain.