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Biosynthesis of the unique trans-delta 3-hexadecenoic acid component of chloroplast phosphatidylglycerol: evidence concerning its site and mechanism of formation


Biosynthesis of the unique trans-delta 3-hexadecenoic acid component of chloroplast phosphatidylglycerol: evidence concerning its site and mechanism of formation



Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 288(2): 591-599



ISSN/ISBN: 0003-9861

PMID: 1898051

As in most higher plants, chloroplast membranes of the green alga Dunaliella salina contain phosphatidylglycerol (PG) that is rich in trans-delta 3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1t), a fatty acid found nowhere else in the cell. After labeling D. salina with exogenous [3H]myristic acid [( 3H]14:0), the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol as well as PG had higher specific radioactivities in chloroplast envelopes than in thylakoids. In contrast, 16:1t was very slow to become radioactive, and its specific radioactivity was several times higher in isolated thylakoids than in envelopes after brief (3-20 min) labeling with [3H]14:0. Analysis of individual PG molecular species revealed that the fatty acid paired with 16:1t was also labeled slowly. Thus linoleate (18:2) released from a 16:1t-containing PG had a 350-fold (at 3 min) to 20-fold (at 60 min) lower specific radioactivity than did 18:2 from a palmitate (16:0)-containing PG. The findings suggest that the substrates for trans-desaturation are 16:0-containing PG molecular species which are readily labeled from [3H]14:0 in the envelope but are diluted by the large pool of thylakoid PG before penetrating to the desaturation site. By examining the labeling patterns of individual PG molecular species classes, it was concluded that D. salina 16:1t is formed from 16:0 linked to 18:2/16:0 PG and 18:3/16:0 PG by a trans-desaturase located within the inner recesses of the thylakoid compartment.

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