Biotransformation and elimination of [2-14C]-1- (2-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D -arabinofuranosyl) -5-iodocytosine in immunosuppressed patients with herpesvirus infections
Feinberg, A.; Leyland-Jones, B.; Fanucchi, M.P.; Hancock, C.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.; Vidal, P.M.; Williams, L.; Young, C.W.; Philips, F.S.
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 27(5): 733-738
ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804 PMID: 2990323 DOI: 10.1128/aac.27.5.733
The metabolism of the drug [2-14C]-1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D -arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC), a potent inhibitor of herpesvirus replication, was studied in immunosuppressed patients with herpesvirus infections. FIAC was administered intravenously by 15-min infusion and by mouth 24 h later to four patients at doses of 50 or 100 mg/m2. FIAC was cleared from the plasma primarily by biotransformation in liver, kidney, and peripheral blood, with a terminal-phase half-life of 0.92 to 1.80 h (mean, 1.36 h) after intravenous administration. The area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) for FIAC was 1.6 to 4.7% (mean, 3.4%) of the AUC0-infinity for total radioactivity. 1-(2'-Deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU) was the major metabolite; the AUC0-infinity for FIAU was 54.3 to 72.5% (mean, 63.4%) of the AUC0-infinity for total radioactivity. The terminal-phase half-life for FIAU was 3.32 to 4.49 h (mean, 3.91 h); FIAU was cleared from plasma by renal elimination and further biotransformation. lesser amounts of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)uracil, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine, the glucuronide conjugates of these metabolites, and the glucuronide conjugates of FIAC and FIAU were also formed. A comparison of the AUC0-infinity for total radioactivity after intravenous and oral administration suggested that nearly all of the oral dose was absorbed. Plasma levels of FIAU, also a potent inhibitor of herpesvirus replication in vitro, exceeded the 50% effective dose for herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus as late as 12 h after administration of FIAC.