+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Cellular and synaptic alterations in the aging brain



Cellular and synaptic alterations in the aging brain



Aging 2(1): 5-25



The morphological and functional impairments observed in the aging brain are discussed in the framework of theoretical concepts, such as the existence of different modalities of intercellular communication and of specific trophic features in the central nervous system. The relevance of changes at the cellular level (disappearance of neuronal cell bodies and proliferation of astroglial cells) and at the synaptic level (alterations in neurotransmitter and receptor levels) is discussed. Two, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses are advanced to explain the frequent absence of correlation between neuropathological findings and functional deficits in aged patients. According to the first, the physiological reshaping of brain circuits during aging may lead to "wrong" readjustments of neural networks (e.g. due to less effective endogenous and exogenous orienting signals) causing minor morphological alterations but marked functional deficits. The second hypothesis maintains that the absence of correlation between neuropathological and functional deficits is due to the impairment of restricted neuronal populations ("pacemaker and command neurons") which play a special role in the hierarchical organization of neuronal networks. These neurons (inter alia, peptidergic neurons) may also be involved in volume transmission (diffusion of electrical and chemical signals in the extracellular fluid to reach distant targets). Moreover, the relevance of glial cells, not only as regulators of the extracellular medium but also on the basis of their trophic links with neurons, is considered. Finally, the interplay between trophic factors and therapeutical experience for the maintenance and/or recovery of an impaired function in elderly patients is discussed.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 039483923

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 2094356

DOI: 10.1007/bf03323891


Related references

Neurobiology of the aging brain: morphological alterations at synaptic regions. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 12(2-3): 253-259, 1991

The alterations in the configuration of synaptic membranes of the human brain in aging and vascular disease. Byulleten' Eksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny 116(11): 544-548, 1993

Chlorpyrifos exposure during neurulation: cholinergic synaptic dysfunction and cellular alterations in brain regions at adolescence and adulthood. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research 148(1): 43-52, 2004

Alterations of markers related to synaptic function in aging rat brain, in normal conditions or under conditions of long-term dietary manipulation. Neurochemistry International 44(8): 579-584, 2004

Taniguchi symposia on brain sciences no 13 aging of the brain cellular and molecular aspects of brain aging and alzheimers disease thirteenth taniguchi international symposium la jolla california usa january 31 february 2 1990. Nagatsu, T And O Hayaishi Taniguchi Symposia on Brain Sciences, No 13 Aging Of The Brain: Cellular And Molecular Aspects Of Brain Aging And Alzheimer's Disease; Thirteenth Taniguchi International Symposium, La Jolla, California, Usa, January 31-February 2, Ix+301p S Karger Ag: Basel, Switzerland; Japan Scientific Societies Press: Tokyo, Japan Illus Ix+301p, 1990

Synaptic functions and synaptic membrane lipids in the aging brain. Fatty acids and lipids: new findings: 53-57, 2001

Synaptic functions and synaptic membrane lipids in the aging brain. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 88: 53-57, 2001

Age-related alterations in mitochondrial physiological parameters and nitric oxide production in synaptic and non-synaptic brain cortex mitochondria. Neuroscience 188: 117-124, 2011

Aging of the Brain: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 50(6): 810-810, 1991

The aging synapse Preservation of and alterations in synaptic proteins. FASEB Journal 16(4): A353, 2002

Quantitative synaptic alterations in the human neocortex during normal aging. Neurology 43(1): 192-197, 1993

Morphological alterations of synaptic mitochondria during aging. The effect of Hydergine treatment. Annals of the new York Academy of Sciences 717: 137-149, 1994

The Aging Brain: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging in the Nervous System. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 42(1): 109-110, 1983

Alterations of synaptic turnover rate in aging may trigger senile plaque formation and neurodegeneration. Annals of the new York Academy of Sciences 1096: 128-137, 2007

Kindling induced alterations in synaptic transmission and cellular properties in rat hippocampus. Cavalheiro, E A , J Lehmann And L Turski (Ed ) Neurology And Neurobiology, Vol 46 Frontiers in Excitatory Amino Acid Research; International Symposium Excitatory Amino Acids '88, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, March 28-April 2, Xxxvi+745p Alan R Liss, Inc : New York, New York, Usa Illus 235-242, 1988