Combined antiviral effects of interferon, adenine, arabinoside, hypoxanthine arabinoside, and adenine arabinoside-5'-monophosphate in human fibroblast cultures
Bryson, Y.J.; Kronenberg, L.H.
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 11(2): 299-306
ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804 PMID: 848937 DOI: 10.1128/aac.11.2.299
Adenine arabinoside and human interferon are currently being evaluated in clinical trials against herpes- and poxvirus infections. Interferon production is also a normal antiviral response. It is therefore important to examine the combined actions of interferon and antiviral arabinosides for possible synergy or antagonism. We have examined the antiviral activities of human fibroblast interferon, adenine arabinoside, hypoxanthine arabinoside, and adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate individually, using plaque inhibition of vaccinia and herpes simplex type 2 viruses in human skin fibroblast cultures. By combining doses of interferon and arabinosides that, acting alone, give intermediate degrees of plaque inhibition, we were able to compare the combined antiviral activity with that calculated from the activity of each inhibitor alone, assuming that the activities are statistically independent. Our results show that the plaque-inhibitory activities of interferon and the arabinosides tested are statistically independent. The results also show that the arabinosides do not destabilize the antiviral state previously induced by interferon, and that interferon pretreatment does not interfere with subsequent arabinoside action in infected cells. We have also found that arabinosides do not affect the induction of interferon synthesis by either Newcastle disease virus or double-stranded ribonucleic acid, and are not themselves interferon inducers.